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Cambridge named as world-leading centre of quantum computing research – Varsity Online

Posted: February 5, 2021 at 7:48 am


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Cambridge has been chosen by The Quantum Daily as one of the top ten global universities and institutions for its exemplary research into quantum physics.

The University of Cambridge has been chosen as one of the worlds top ten universities and research institutions by The Quantum Daily, a leading online publication in the field of quantum computing.

It describes Cambridge as being at the apex of the countrys pioneering quantum movement.

Several quantum computing startups have spun out of the University, while many other quantum organizations made their homes near Cambridge because of the ready access to world-leading talent and brainpower, the publication continues.

Professor Adrian Kent, a quantum physicist at the Universitys Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, told Varsity: Recognition is always pleasing, of course, but were really focussed on enjoying work in this amazing field and doing the best science we can.

The Quantum Daily describes the Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations (CQIF), based at the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, as an example of the Universitys ability to combine research, teaching and service to encourage the growth of this ecosystem.

Conventional (classical) computers use the bit (binary digit) as a unit of information, which can exist in one of two states represented by the digits 0 and 1. Quantum computers, on the other hand, operate on quantum bits, or qubits.

Qubits are governed by the laws of quantum mechanics, so can exist in both states at once. This phenomenon, known as entanglement, may in future allow quantum computers to perform calculations inaccessible to their classical counterparts.

Research at the CQIF currently focuses on theoretical and practical quantum cryptography and relativistic quantum cryptography a field invented at the CQIF, Kent and his colleagues told Varsity.

Quantum cryptography research is driven by the fact that the state of quantum systems is sensitive to measurement and observation, in principle making them ideal for secure communications.

The CQIF is a member of the UK Quantum Communications Hub, which Kent and the other researchers describe as a collaboration between many UK research groups, one of whose projects is building a secure quantum cryptographic network that will link nodes in Cambridge to Ipswich, London, Bristol and beyond.

Other research at the Centre investigates foundational questions probing the basic principles of quantum theory itself and its relationship to classical physics and gravity, as well as the overlap between quantum computing and classical computer science.

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CQIF is also examining quantum advantage, or why quantum computers are faster than classical computers, the researchers explained. A better understanding of key differences between behaviours of classical and quantum systems will help answer questions about how to build efficient quantum computers and design software to run on them.

Quantum information theory, the study of information transmission and manipulation in quantum systems, is another focus of research at the CQIF. In particular, Kent and his colleagues are interested in removing the traditionally considered assumptions to understand information transmission in more realistic conditions.

One such assumption is that quantum systems are memoryless, meaning the probability of an event occurring does not depend on how much time has elapsed since the last event, they explained.

The researchers toldVarsity of their enjoyment of the depth and breadth of research in the CQIF, and the diverse backgrounds and expertise of those working at the centre.

It often leads to useful discussions between the different members of CQIF, resulting in cross-fertilization of ideas from different areas, useful insights and, ultimately, exciting results, they continued.

This recognition will hopefully contribute to more talented young scientists aspiring to work in this inspiring place.

In addition to Cambridge, TheQuantum Dailys list includes other organisations from around the world. The Chinese Academy of Science, the Max Planck Society and Harvard University were among those chosen.

Varsity is the independent newspaper for the University of Cambridge, established in its current form in 1947. In order to maintain our editorial independence, our print newspaper and news website receives no funding from the University of Cambridge or its constituent Colleges.

We are therefore almost entirely reliant on advertising for funding, and during this unprecedented global crisis, we expect to have a tough few months and years ahead.

In spite of this situation, we are going to look at inventive ways to look at serving our readership with digital content and of course in print too.

Therefore we are asking our readers, if they wish, to make a donation from as little as 1, to help with our running costs at least until this global crisis ends and things begin to return to normal.

Many thanks, all of us here at Varsity would like to wish you, your friends, families and all of your loved ones a safe and healthy few months ahead.

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Cambridge named as world-leading centre of quantum computing research - Varsity Online

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February 5th, 2021 at 7:48 am

Posted in Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing Market 2018 Size, Application,Revenue, Types, Trends in Future, Scope to 2030 | D-Wave Systems Inc., QX Branch Co., IBM Co., Google…

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(Feb 2021 trend research report )The newly added report titledGlobal Quantum Computing Market Report 2020, Forecast to 2030to the database ofinsightSLICEreveals existing trends and tendencies in the industry. The report contains vital insights on the market and a thorough overview of the market where it identifies industry trends, determines industry insights, and offers competitive intelligence. The report helps to figure out and study the market needs, market size, and competition. The report includes noteworthy information alongside future conjecture and point by point market scanning on a worldwide, regional, and local level for the global Quantum Computing industry. The research document is designed with correctness and in-depth knowledge which helps the business to grow and henceforth results in revenue growth.

The report analyzes the current market trends, consumer demands, and preferences, market situations, opportunities, and market status. Other principles studied in terms of the market report include market definition, market segmentation, competitive analysis, and research methodology. The report offers an in-depth analysis of the global Quantum Computing markets historical data and estimated projections about the market size and share in the forecast period from 2020 to 2030. It also includes market trends, revenue growth patterns market shares, and demand and supply. The report is segmented on the basis of types, end-users, applications, and regional markets.

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Development policies and plans are discussed and manufacturing processes and industry chain structures are analyzed. This report also provides data on import / export, supply and consumption, as well as manufacturing costs and global revenues, and gross margin by region. The numerical data are copied with statistical tools, such as SWOT analysis, BCG matrix, SCOT analysis and PESTLE analysis. Statistics are presented in graphical form to provide a clear understanding of the facts and figures.

The main manufacturers covered in this report:

D-Wave Systems Inc., QX Branch Co., IBM Co., Google Co., Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., and Toshiba Research Europe Ltd.

Market segmentation:

The Quantum Computing market is divided into several essential sectors, including application, type and region . Each market segment is extensively studied in the report, taking into account market acceptance, value, demand and growth prospects. Segmentation analysis allows customers to customize their marketing approach to place better orders for each segment and identify the most potential customer base

Regional views of the market Quantum Computing

In terms of geography, this research report covers almost every major region in the world, such as North America, Europe, South America, the Middle East and Africa and Asia Pacific. Europe and North America are expected to increase in the coming years. The Asia Pacific Quantum Computing market is expected to grow significantly during the forecast period. The latest technologies and innovations are the most important features of North America and the main reason why the United States dominates the world market. The South American market for Quantum Computing is also expected to grow in the near future.

The report covers the impacts of COVID-19 on the market.

The ongoing pandemic has changed several facets of the market. This research report provides financial impacts and market disruption to the Quantum Computing market. It also includes analyzing potential opportunities and challenges in the foreseeable future. insightSLICEinterviewed several industry delegates and engaged in primary and secondary research to provide customers with information and strategies to address market challenges during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

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The conclusion of this report provides an overview of the potential for new projects to be successful in the market in the near future, and the global payroll online service market in terms of investment potential in various market sectors covers the full range .

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Quantum Computing Market 2018 Size, Application,Revenue, Types, Trends in Future, Scope to 2030 | D-Wave Systems Inc., QX Branch Co., IBM Co., Google...

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February 5th, 2021 at 7:48 am

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Quantum computing breakthrough uses cryogenics to scale machines to thousands of times their current size – The Independent

Posted: February 3, 2021 at 10:50 pm


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Computer scientists have achieved a quantum computing breakthrough that makes it possible to massively scale up the ultra-powerful machines.

A team of researchers from Microsoft and the University of Sydney invented a chip, dubbed Gooseberry, that can support thousands of qubits the building blocks of quantum computers while operating at temperatures close to absolute zero.

Qubits replace the traditional bits found in current computer systems, which use 1s and 0s to store and transfer data. By acting in a state of superposition, qubits are able to act as both a 1 and a 0 at the same time, allowing quantum computers to achieve processing power that is exponentially more powerful than traditional computers.

To realise the potential of quantum computing, machines will need to operate thousands, if not millions, of qubits, said Professor David Reilly from the University of Sydney, who was chief investigator of the research.

The worlds biggest quantum computers currently operate with just 50 or so qubits. This small scale is partly because of limits to the physical architecture that control the qubits. Our new chip puts an end to those limits.

The research is published in the journal Nature Electronics.

Qubits need to be stored at temperatures that are 40 times colder than deep space in order to function, with current systems relying on cables connected to each individual qubit stored a these extreme temperatures.

The cryogenic Gooseberry chip disrupts this architectural approach by generating control signals for thousands of qubits in a single place, while requiring only two wires to communicate with the rest of the system.

Current machines create a beautiful array of wires to control the signals; they look like an inverted gilded birds nest or chandelier, Professor Reilly said.

Theyre pretty, but fundamentally impractical. It means we cant scale the machines up to perform useful calculations. There is a real input-output bottleneck.

Building a quantum computer is perhaps the most challenging engineering task of the 21st century Through our partnership with Microsoft, we havent just suggested a theoretical architecture to overcome the input-output bottleneck, weve built it.

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Quantum computing breakthrough uses cryogenics to scale machines to thousands of times their current size - The Independent

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February 3rd, 2021 at 10:50 pm

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Quantum Computing Market worth $1,765 million by 2026 – Exclusive Report by MarketsandMarkets – PRNewswire

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CHICAGO, Feb. 2, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- According to the new market research report "Quantum Computing Marketwith COVID-19 impact by Offering (Systems and Services), Deployment (On Premises and Cloud Based), Application, Technology, End-use Industry and Region - Global Forecast to 2026", published by MarketsandMarkets, the market is expected to grow from USD 472 million in 2021 to USD 1,765 million by 2026, at a CAGR of 30.2%. The early adoption of quantum computing in the banking and finance sector is expected to fuel the growth of the market globally. Other key factors contributing to the growth of the quantum computing market include rising investments by governments of different countries to carry out research and development activities related to quantum computing technology. Several companies are focusing on the adoption of QCaaS post-COVID-19. This, in turn, is expected to contribute to the growth of the quantum computing market. However, stability and error correction issues is expected to restrain the growth of the market.

Ask for PDF Brochure: https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/pdfdownloadNew.asp?id=144888301

Services segment is attributed to hold the largest share of the Quantum Computing market

The growth of services segment can be attributed to the increasing number of startups across the world that are investing in research and development activities related to quantum computing technology. This technology is used in optimization, simulation, and machine learning applications, thereby leading to optimum utilization costs and highly efficient operations in various end-use industries.

Cloud based deployment to witness the highest growth in Quantum Computing market in coming years

With the development of highly powerful systems, the demand for cloud-based deployment of quantum computing systems and services is expected to increase. This, in turn, is expected to result in a significant revenue source for service providers, with users paying for access to noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) systems that can solve real-world problems. The limited lifespan of rapidly advancing quantum computing systems also favors cloud service providers. The flexibility of access offered to users is another factor fueling the adoption of cloud-based deployment of quantum computing systems and services. For the foreseeable future, quantum computers are expected not to be portable. Cloud can provide users with access to different devices and simulators from their laptops.

Optimization accounted for a major share of the overall Quantum Computing market

Optimization is the largest application for quantum computing and accounted for a major share of the overall Quantum Computing market. Companies such as D-Wave Systems, Cambridge Quantum Computing, QC Ware, and 1QB Information Technologies are developing quantum computing systems for optimization applications. Networked Quantum Information Technologies Hub (NQIT) is expanding to incorporate optimization solutions for resolving problems faced by the practical applications of quantum computing technology.

Trapped ions segment to witness highest CAGR of Quantum Computing market during the forecast period

The trapped ions segment of the market is projected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period as quantum computing systems based on trapped ions offer more stability and better connectivity than quantum computing systems based on other technologies. IonQ, Alpine Quantum Technologies, and Honeywell are a few companies that use trapped ions technology in their quantum computing systems.

Browsein-depth TOC on"Quantum Computing Market"

111 Tables 51 Figures 199 Pages

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Banking and finance is attributed to hold major share of Quantum Computing market during the forecast period

In the banking and finance end-use industry, quantum computing is used for risk modeling and trading applications. It is also used to detect the market instabilities by identifying stock market risks and optimize the trading trajectories, portfolios, and asset pricing and hedging. As the financial sector is difficult to understand; the quantum computing approach is expected to help users understand the complexities of the banking and finance end-use industry. Moreover, it can help traders by suggesting them solutions to overcome financial challenges.

APAC to witness highest growth of Quantum Computing market during the forecast period

APAC region is a leading hub for several industries, including healthcare and pharmaceuticals, banking and finance, and chemicals. Countries such as China, Japan, and South Korea are the leading manufacturers of consumer electronics, including smartphones, laptops, and gaming consoles, in APAC. There is a requirement to resolve complications in optimization, simulation, and machine learning applications across these industries. The large-scale development witnessed by emerging economies of APAC and the increased use of advanced technologies in the manufacturing sector are contributing to the development of large and medium enterprises in the region. This, in turn, is fueling the demand for quantum computing services and systems in APAC.

In APAC, the investments look promising, as most countries such as China, Japan, and South Korea have successfully contained the virus compared with the US and European countries. China is easing the restrictions placed on factory lockdowns and worker movement. Despite being the epicenter of COVID-19, China has maintained its dominant position as a global network leader.

The Quantum Computing market was dominated by International Business Machines (US), D-Wave Systems (Canada), Microsoft (US), Amazon (US), and Rigetti Computing (US).

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Deep Learning Marketby Offering (Hardware, Software, and Services), Application (Image Recognition, Signal Recognition, Data Mining), End-User Industry (Security, Marketing, Healthcare, Fintech, Automotive, Law), and Geography - Global Forecast to 2023

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Quantum Computing Market worth $1,765 million by 2026 - Exclusive Report by MarketsandMarkets - PRNewswire

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February 3rd, 2021 at 10:50 pm

Posted in Quantum Computing

IBM’s Goldeneye: Behind the scenes at the world’s largest dilution refrigerator – ZDNet

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CONNIE ZHOU

It's fitting that one of the coolest quantum computing projects going has an equally cool name.Goldeneyeis IBM's internal codename for the world's largest dilution refrigerator, which will house a future 1,000,000 qubit quantum processor.

In September 2020, IBM debuted a detailed roadmap about how it will scale its quantum technology in the next three years to reach the true quantum industry inflection point of Quantum Advantage -- the point at which quantum systems will be more powerful than today's conventional computing.

But there's a catch: You can't do anything in quantum without incredibly low temperatures.

To reach this 'moon landing' moment, the IBM team developed the largest dilution refrigerator, which will house a future 1,000,000 qubit system. Work is underway to reach the goal of quantum computer capable of surpassing conventional machines by 2023, and this 10-foot-tall and 6-foot-wide "super-fridge" is a key ingredient, capable of reaching temperatures of 15 millikelvin, which is colder than outer space. The fridge gets so cold it takes between 5 and 14 days to cool down.

I caught up withJerry Chow, Director of Quantum Hardware System Development for IBM, to learn about the Herculean project and to find out what's next for IBM's quantum computing ambitions.

Let's start with the basics: Why is a super-fridge necessary for useful quantum computing and what advances in the last decade or so have aided that effort?

Superconducting qubits need to be cooled down to between 10-15 millikelvin for their quantum behavior to emerge. They need to be kept that cold to ensure that their performance is high. Dilution refrigeration technology, which has been around for a really long time, is an enabling technology specifically for superconducting qubits for quantum computing. Whereas a different type of qubit might require its own unique set of hardware and infrastructure.

Around 2010, cryogen-free dilution refrigerators became en vogue. These didn't require transferring and refilling liquid cryogenic helium every other day to keep these refrigerators cold. In fact, my PhD at Yale was completed entirely at the time when we were still experimenting on what we call "wet" dilution refrigerators. However, around 2010, the whole world started switching over to these reliable cryogen-free "dry" dilution refrigerators which suddenly allowed for experiments with superconducting qubits to be done for a lot longer periods of time with no interruption.

How did the Goldeneye project first took shape? And what were the biggest perceived technical challenges early on?

The very first thought of building something at that scale came from my colleaguePat Gumannwhile brainstorming long-term, 'crazy' ideas in my office in November of 2018. At that time, our team was tasked with deploying our first 53-qubit quantum computer in the IBM Quantum Computation Center in Poughkeepsie, NY, a challenge which pushed a few limits in what we could place into a single cryogenic refrigerator at the time. While working on it, it also really made us start thinking beyond, and almost instantly that we will need much larger cryogenic support system to ever cool down between 1,000 to 1 million qubits. This was simply due to the sheer volume required to host, not only all the qubits, but also all of the auxiliary, cryogenic, microwave electronics cables, filters, attenuators, isolators, amplifiers, etc.

It became very apparent that a new way of thinking in terms of the design would be needed and we started coming up with different form factors for how to effectively construct and cool down a behemoth such as the super-fridge. Some of the challenges we had were purely infrastructural such as how were we going to find a space in the building big enough to start this project and where would we find the capabilities to work with really large pieces of metal.

And as the rubber started to meet the road what have turned out to be the biggest hurdles to creating a useful quantum computer, and what does that say about the trajectory of the technology?

Some of the most challenging hurdles to overcome includes improving the quality of the underlying qubits, which includes improving the underlying coherence times (the amount of time that qubits stay in a superposition state), the achievable two-qubit gate fidelities, and reducing crosstalk between qubits as we scale up.

For that matter, most of these improvements feed into an overall quality measure for the performance of a quantum computer which we have defined called the Quantum Volume. Having a measure such as Quantum Volume allows us to really show progression along a roadmap of improvements, and we have been demonstrating this scaling of Quantum Volume year over year as we make new systems better and better.

The higher the Quantum Volume, the more real-world, complex problems quantum computers can potentially solve. A variety of factors determine Quantum Volume, including the number of qubits, connectivity, and coherence time, plus accounting for gate and measurement errors, device cross talk, and circuit software compiler efficiency.

Where is IBM right now with regards to Goldeneye? What can we expect in the near future?

Our "Goldeneye" super-fridge is very much an ongoing project, which is on target for completion in 2023. It is just one critical part of our long-term roadmap for scaling quantum technology. As we continue to execute on the roadmap we announced in September, we're pleased to share that we achieved aQuantum Volume of 128in November and we're working towards improving the quality of our underlying systems in order to debut our127-qubit IBM Quantum Eagle processorlater this year.

In the near future, we're poised to make exciting developments with our entire technology stack, including software and control systems. At IBM, we're working toward a complete set of broad innovations and breakthroughs.

What will quantum computing mean for the world in the long run? How will be a game changer?

Quantum computing will vastly broaden the types of problems we will address, and the technology offers a new form of computation that we expect to work in a frictionless fashion with today's classical computers. From the chemistry of new materials, and the optimization of everything from vehicle routing to financial portfolios, to improving machine learning, quantum will be an integral part of the future of computing and we're proud to be laying the foundation for a future of discovery.

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IBM's Goldeneye: Behind the scenes at the world's largest dilution refrigerator - ZDNet

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February 3rd, 2021 at 10:50 pm

Posted in Quantum Computing

Establishing a Women Inclusive Future in Quantum Computing – Analytics Insight

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If you think the 21st century has brought enough opportunities to women in technology, it is still an uncertain thought that needs verification. The modern era of technology has changed the world upside down. The emerging trends are slowly placing women equally to men at all positions in the tech radar. But what feels off is where women stand in therevolution of quantum computers.

Computers have evolved on a large scale in recent decades. Initially, computers filled a whole building and costed a fortune. But today, they are minimized to a small size and featured with advanced technologies where people carry them every day. Thequantum growthhas given birth to ideas like quantum computer and quantum internet. Unlike many disruptive technologies, quantum computing is something that can change the base of our computing system. Even though a fully established quantum computer is still under process, the industry is remarkably being male dominant at some stance. While countries run the race to reach the quantum success, they often leave women behind. And the worst case is that most of us dont notice the discrimination quantum computing is bringing into the tech sector. In order to know better about quantum computing and womens position in technology, let us go through the history and some of the important global quantum initiatives.

Quantum computeris a device that employs properties described by quantum mechanics to enhance computations. Quantum computers are anticipated to spur the development of breakthrough in science, medications to save lives, machine learning methods to diagnose illnesses sooner, materials to make more efficient devices and structures, financial strategies to live well in retirement, and algorithms to quickly direct resources such as ambulances. In a nutshell, quantum computing could ease critical jobs for good. While classical computers are based on bits, quantum computers are based on quantum bits, called qubits. Qubits are physically derived from small quantum objects such as electron or photon, where a pure quantum mechanical state such as spin indicates the ones and zeros.

Thespark of quantum computingwas struck by Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman in 1959. He noted that as electronic components begin to reach microscopic scales, effects predicted by quantum mechanics might be exploited in the design of more powerful computers. The simple speculation turned out to be a theory during the 1980s and 90s and advanced beyond Feynmams words. In 1985, David Deutsch of the University of Oxford described the construction of quantum logic gates for a universal quantum computer. Peter Shor of AT&T devised an algorithm to factor numbers with quantum computers that would require fewer qubits. Later in 1998, Isaac Chuang of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Neil Gershenfeld of the Massachusetts Insititute of Technology (MIT) and Mark Kubinec of the University of California at Berkeley created the first quantum computer that could be loaded with data and output a solution. Almost twenty years later, IBM presented the first commercially usable quantum computer in 2017.

Quantum technologieshave been getting exponential investments in the last few years. The global efforts to boost the quantum mechanism have emerged as a main area of funding. By 2025, the global quantum market is expected to reach US$948.82 million. Quantum computing will give a substantial military and economic advantage to whichever countries come out on top in this global competition.

In 2018, under former President Donald J. Trumps administration, a bipartisan law called National Quantum Initiative Act was passed. According to the law, US$1.2 billion will be spent on the development of quantum information processing over the course of a decade. European countries are also taking steps to stabilize their quantum future. In 2016, 3,400 significant people form science, research and corporate world signed the Quantum Manifesto to call upon the European Commission and the Member States to formulate a joint strategy designed to ensure that the continent remains at the forefront of the second quantum revolution. Two years past the initiative, European Commission launched a Quantum Technologies Flagship program to support hundreds of quantum science researchers.

China is being ambitious in becoming a frontrunner in the quantum revolution. Under Chinese President Xi Jinpings rule, the countrys scientists and engineers are enjoying access to nearly unlimited resources in their development of quantum science and technology. In 2016, China has launched the worlds first quantum satellite as a test platform for quantum communications links between space and earth.

Physics, computer science and engineering are thebasement of quantum computing. The problem starts from the very baseline because only 20% of degree recipients are identified as women for the last decade. Even women who survive the lone time at universities face an existential crisis on daily life as a person involved in quantum initiatives. They are often dismissed and walked over by their male peers. A research conducted by a group of five female scientists has concluded thatwomen who receive an A gradein a physics course have the same self-efficacy about their own performance as men who earn a C grade. The research further unravels thatwomen have a lower sense of belongingand they feel less recognized by their physics instructors as people who can excel in physics.

However, the world can still build an inclusive future for women by taking certain initiatives. Primarily, women need to be recognized in the science and engineering disciplines. Insufficient encouragement in the education level is a threat to women willingness. Instructors and research advisors should cheer female students to perform better and give them more opportunities. Organizations should also develop a culture that treats women and their ideas equally to their male counterparts.

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Establishing a Women Inclusive Future in Quantum Computing - Analytics Insight

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February 3rd, 2021 at 10:50 pm

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The risk of giving in to quantum progress – ComputerWeekly.com

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Over the next few years the tech industry has a roadmap to overcome the challenges facing quantum computing. This will pave the way to growth in mainstream quantum computing to solve hard problems.

There are numerous opportunities, from finding a cure for cancer to the development of new, more sustainable materials and tackling climate change. But a recent short film on quantum ethics has highlighted the risks, which may be as profound as the Manhattan Project that led to two atomic bombs being dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.

One interviewee featured in the film, Ilana Wisby, CEO, Oxford Quantum Circuits said: We wont fully understand the impact of what we have until we have got the systems, but it will be revolutionising and will be lucrative for some.

The experts discussed the need for a debate across society to assess and appreciate the risk quantum computing will pose. Ilyas Khan, CEO Cambridge Quantum Computing said: We may be able to shift the boundaries of what can and cannot be done with machines.

Faye Wattleton, co-found EeroQ Quantum urged the innovators and policy makers to take a step back to consider the implications and its impact on humanity. If we can do in a few minutes what it would take 10,000 years to do with current technology then that requires careful consideration. From a societal perspective, what does this kind of power mean?

Just because a quantum computer makes it possible to solve an insoluble problem, does not mean it should be solved.

In the past, there was oversight and governance of technological breakthroughs like the printing press, which paved the way to mass media and the railways, which led to mass transit. But IT has become arrogant. Its proponents say that it moves far too quickly to be restrained by a regulatory framework. As an expert at a recent House of Lords Select Committee meeting warned, policy-makers are not very good at looking ahead at the long term impact of a new technological development. In the 1990s, who would have considered that the growth of the internet, social media and mobile phones would be a stimulant for fake news and a catalyst for rogue states to influence elections in other countries.

Khan describes the lack of controls on the internet like being asleep at the wheel. What are the implications of a quantum computing society? Perhaps, as Khan, says, society need to anticipate these issues, instead of being asleep at the wheel again.

This e-guide explores these matters, beginning with a comprehensive article that ranges over supply chain management, from a macro level through how trading platforms have been flexed to switch suppliers rapidly down to how robots have been quickly deployed to solve problems of scale.

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The risk of giving in to quantum progress - ComputerWeekly.com

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February 3rd, 2021 at 10:50 pm

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Quantum Computing 101 -What it is, how is it different and why it matters – The Jerusalem Post

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In our everyday classical computers, 0s and 1s are associated with switches and electronic circuits turning on and off as part of the computer using a binary number system to calculate possibilities and perform operations. For example, when a computer mouse moves, a sensor tells the computer that an electrical signal has been converted into a binary value or number. Further, this number represents a location that is then represented on the computer screen all of which is embodied by the byte that is the building block of current computers. The sensor message to the computer is also saved to memory. Some calculations have too many possibilities for even a traditional computer to calculate like simulating the weather or calculating scrambled combinations of prime numbers. Quantum is the state of things being unknown at the subatomic level until they can be observed and moves from the byte to the qubit. In a quantum computer, it is said that the values assigned to 0 and 1 can occur at the same time. The reason this impossibility is possible is because of quantums subatomic level where protons and electrons are acting in a wild way beyond the rules of nature as we tend to think of them. Picture The Avengers superhero Antman shrinking into the quantum zone where time did not even move in a linear fashion. In computer terms, once the values of 0 and 1 can happen at the same time, it allows the quantum computer to consider trillions of possibilities or more in the same instant, dwarfing the number of calculations that our traditional computers, stuck in binary counting, can do. This process is called superposition. Superposition ends once a specialized particle, or qubit, slows/is observable, thereby emerging from its quantum state. We stick the qubit in an artificial space vacuum so that it does not get observed or interfered with and remains dynamic. Pictures of quantum computers often show tubes the size of a household refrigerator. But most of the tubing is not the central computer processor as much as the process used to maintain the qubits at the absolute zero quantum state. Since around 1977, RSA has been among the most widely used systems for secure data transmission underlying the Internet, serving as the backbone of the NYSE, most large institutions and most individual online users. What is stopping an average person from hacking anyones elses website is that RSA is easy to build, and being based on two pseudo-random prime numbers, hard to burst for traditional computers limited binary system calculation capacity.

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Quantum Computing 101 -What it is, how is it different and why it matters - The Jerusalem Post

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February 3rd, 2021 at 10:50 pm

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Here’s Why Quantum Computing Will Not Break Cryptocurrencies – Forbes

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Safe Deposit. Symbol of cryptocurrency safety. The man puts a physical bitcoin in small Residential ... [+] Vault. Toned soft focus picture.

Theres a lurking fear in cryptocurrency communities about quantum computing. Could it break cryptocurrencies and the encryption that protects them? How close might that be? Do the headlines around quantum supremacy mean that my private keys are at risk?

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The simple answer: no. But lets dive deeper into this phenomenon and really try to understand why this is the case and how quantum computing will interact with cryptocurrencies.

To start off with, lets define quantum computing and the classical computing were all used to, and seeing where the terms compare and contrast with one another. Quantum computing can be roughly placed in the same paradigm as classical pre-1900s physics and modern physics which comprises Einsteins insights on relativity and quantum physics.

Classical computing is the kind of computers weve grown used to, the extensions of Turings theories on computation, the laptops or mobile phones that you carry around with you. Classical computing relies heavily on the manipulation of physical bits the famous 0s and 1s.

Quantum computing relies on qubits, bits that are held in superposition and use quantum principles to complete calculations. The information captured or generated by a quantum system benefits from the ability of qubits to be in more than one physical state at a time (superposition), but there is information decay in capturing the state of the system.

One point that will be immediately relevant to the discussion is that quantum computers are not universally better than classical computers as a result. When people speak about quantum supremacy, including reports from Google GOOG and/or China, they really mean that a quantum computer can do a certain task better than classical computers, perhaps one that is impossible to do in any reasonable timeframe with classical computers.

We can think of this in terms of time scales from a computing perspective there are some, but not all functions, that go from being impossible to accomplish in any meaningful human-level time period to ones that become slow but manageable with a large enough quantum computer.

In a way, you can think of Turing tests and quantum supremacy tests in much the same way. Designed at first to demonstrate the superiority of one system over another (in the case of Turing tests, artificial language generation vs. human language comprehension, in the case of quantum supremacy tests, quantum computing systems vs classical computers), theyve become more gimmick than substance.

A quantum computer has to perform better at some minute and trivial task that might seem impressive but completely useless in much the same way a Turing test of machine-generated English might fool a Ukrainian child with no fluency in the language.

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This means that we have to narrow down to a function that quantum computers can be better on that would materially affect cryptocurrencies or the encryption theyre built on in order for quantum supremacy to matter.

One area of specific focus is Shors Algorithm, which can factor large prime numbers down into two smaller ones. This is a very useful property for breaking encryption, since the RSA family of encryption depends on factoring large prime numbers in exactly this manner. Shors Algorithm works in theory with a large enough quantum computer and so its a practical concern that eventually, Shors Algorithm might come into play and among other things, RSA encryption might be broken.

On this front, the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has already started gathering proposals for post-quantum cryptography, encryption that would operate and not be broken even with much larger quantum computers than the ones were currently able to build. They estimate that large enough quantum computers to disrupt classical encryption will potentially arrive in the next twenty years.

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For cryptocurrencies, a fork in the future that might affect large parts of the chain, but it will be somewhat predictable there is a lot of thought being placed on post-quantum encryption technology. Bitcoin would not be one of the first planks to fall if classical encryption were suddenly broken for a number of reasons. Yet, a soft fork (as opposed to a hard one) might be enough to help move crypto-assets from suddenly insecure keys to secure post-quantum encryption.

Even an efficient implementation of Shors Algorithm may not break some of the cryptography standards used in bitcoin. SHA-256 is theorized to be quantum-resistant.

The most efficient theoretical implementation of a quantum computer to detect a SHA-256 collision is actually less efficient than the theorized classical implementation for breaking the standard. The wallet file in the original Bitcoin client is using SHA-512 (a more secure version than SHA-256) to help encrypt private keys.

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Most of the encryption in modern cryptocurrencies are built on elliptic curve cryptography rather than RSA especially in the generation of signatures in bitcoin which requires ECDSA. This is largely due to the fact that elliptic curves are correspondingly harder to crack than RSA (sometimes exponentially so) from classical computers.

Thanks to Moores law and better classical computing, secure RSA key sizes have grown so large so as to be impractical compared to elliptic curve cryptography so most people will opt for elliptic curve cryptography for performance reasons for their systems, which is the case with bitcoin.

However, quantum computers seem to flip this logic on its head: given a large enough quantum computer with enough qubits, you can break elliptic curve cryptography easier than you might break RSA.

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Both elliptic curve cryptography are widely used in a bunch of other industries and use cases as well RSA-2048 and higher are standards in the conventional banking system to send encrypted information, for example.

Yet, even with a large enough quantum computer, you would still have to reveal or find somebodys public keys so they could be subject to attack. With cryptocurrency wallet reuse being frowned upon, and a general encouragement of good privacy practices, the likelihood of this attack is already being reduced.

Another area of attack could be Grovers algorithm, which can exponentially speed up mining with a large enough quantum computer though its probable that ASICs, the specialized classical computers mostly used to mine bitcoin now, would be faster compared to the earliest versions of more complete quantum computers.

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This poses more of a stronger threat when it comes to the state of cryptocurrencies: the ability to mine quickly in a sudden quantum speedup could lead to destabilization of prices and more importantly control of the chain itself an unexpected quantum speedup could, if hidden, lead to vast centralization of mining and possible 51% attacks. Yet the most likely case is that larger systems of quantum computing will be treated like any kind of hardware, similar to the transition for miners between GPUs, FGPAs and ASICs a slow economic transition to better tooling.

Its conceivable that these avenues of attack and perhaps other more unpredictable ones might emerge, yet post-quantum encryption planning is already in process and through the mechanism of forks, cryptocurrencies can be updated to use post-quantum encryption standards and defend against these weaknesses.

Bitcoin and even other cryptocurrencies and their history are filled with examples of hardware and software changes that had to be made to make the network more secure and performant and good security practices in the present (avoiding wallet reuse) can help prepare for a more uncertain future.

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So quantum computers being added to the mix wont suddenly render classical modes of encryption useless or mining trivial quantum supremacy now doesnt mean that your encryption or the security of bitcoin is at risk right at this moment.

The real threat is when quantum computers become many scales larger than they currently are by which point planning for post-quantum encryption, which is already well on the way would come to the fore, and at which point bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies can soft fork and use both decentralized governance and dynamism when needed in the face of new existential threats to defeat the threat of quantum supremacy.

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Here's Why Quantum Computing Will Not Break Cryptocurrencies - Forbes

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December 24th, 2020 at 10:58 am

Posted in Quantum Computing

Global Quantum Computing Market Predicted to Garner $667.3 Million by 2027, Growing at 30.0% CAGR from 2020 to 2027 – [193 pages] Informative Report…

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December 22, 2020 10:00 ET | Source: Research Dive

New York, USA, Dec. 22, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- A latest report published by Research Dive on the globalquantum computing market sheds light on the current outlook and future growth of the market. As per the report, the global quantum computing market is expected to garner $667.3 million by growing at a CAGR of 30.0% from 2020 to 2027. This report is drafted by market experts by evaluating all the important aspects of the market. It is a perfect source of information and statistics for new entrants, market players, shareholders, stakeholders, investors, etc.

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The report includes:

A summary of the market with its definition, advantages, and application areas. Detailed insights on market position, dynamics, statistics, growth rate, revenues, market shares, and future predictions. Key market segments, boomers, restraints, and investment opportunities. Present situation of the global as well as regional market from the viewpoint of companies, countries, and end industries. Information on leading companies, current market trends and developments, Porter Five Analysis, and top winning business strategies.

Factors Impacting the Market Growth:

As per the report, the growing cyber-attacks across the world is hugely contributing to the growth of the global quantum computing market. Moreover, the rising implementation of quantum computing technologies in agriculture for helping farmers to improve the efficiency and yield of crops is likely to unlock rewarding opportunities for the market growth. However, absence of highly experienced employees, having knowledge regarding quantum computing is likely to hinder the market growth.

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COVID-19 Impact Analysis:

The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has made a significant impact on the global quantum computing market. During this crisis period, quantum computing technology can be used for medical research and other activities related to COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the technology can be beneficial for developing advanced drugs at an accelerated speed and for analyzing different types of interactions between biomolecules and fight infectious like viruses. In addition, businesses are greatly investing in the development of quantum computers for drug discovery amidst the crisis period. All these factors are expected to unlock novel investment opportunities for the market growth in the upcoming years.

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Segment Analysis:

The report segments the quantum computing market into offerings type, end user, and application.

By offerings type, the report further categorizes the market into: Consulting solutions Systems

Among these, the systems segment is expected to dominate the market by garnering a revenue of $313.3 million by 2027. This is mainly due to growing use of quantum computing in AI, radar making, machine learning technologies, and many others.

Based on application, the report further classifies the market into: Optimization Machine Learning Material Simulation

Among these, themachine learning segment is expected to observe accelerated growth and garner $236.9 million by 2027. This is mainly due to significant role of quantum computing in enhancing runtime, capacity, and learning efficiency. Moreover, quantum machine learning has the potential to speed-up various machine learning processes such as optimization, linear algebra, deep learning, and Kernel evaluation, which is likely to boost the market growth during the forecast period.

Regional Analysis:

The report explains the lookout of the global quantum computing market across several regions, including: Europe Asia Pacific LAMEA North America

Among these, the Asia-Pacific region is estimated to lead the market growth by growing at a striking growth rate of 31.60% during the forecast period. This is mainly because of the growing adoption of quantum computing technologies in numerous sectors including chemicals, healthcare, utilities & pharmaceuticals, and others in this region.

Market Players and Business Strategies:

The report offers a list of global key players in the quantum computing market and discloses some of their strategies and developments. The key players listed in the report are:

QC Ware, Corp. Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited D-Wave Systems Inc., International Business Machines Corporation Rigetti Computing 1QB Information Technologies River Lane Research StationQ Microsoft Anyon Google Inc.

These players are massively contributing to the growth of the market by performing activities such as mergers and acquisitions, novel developments, geographical expansions, and many more.

Our market experts have made use of several tools, methodologies, and research methods to get in-depth insights of the global quantum computing sector. Moreover, we strive to deliver a customized report to fulfill special requirements of our clients, on demand.Click Here to Get Absolute Top Companies Development Strategies Summary Report.

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Global Quantum Computing Market Predicted to Garner $667.3 Million by 2027, Growing at 30.0% CAGR from 2020 to 2027 - [193 pages] Informative Report...

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December 24th, 2020 at 10:58 am

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