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Archive for the ‘Thai Chi’ Category

Chi Thai Restaurant | Best Thai Cuisine in Columbus, OH!

Posted: December 23, 2018 at 8:45 pm


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Lunch Menu

Appetizers

Soups

Poultry

Beef

Pork

Seafood

Vegetables

House Favorites

Regional Cooking

Lunch - $7.95Beef: Lunch - $8.50Shrimp: Lunch - $10.95Scallop: Lunch - $11.95

Thai Gourmet Cuisine

Lunch - $8.50

Dinner - $10.95

Noodles & Rice

Desserts

Lunch Specials Monthly Lunch Special - Pick 2 Only $8.95AVAILABLE FOR DINE-IN OR CARRYOUT!Monday through Friday 11:30am to 3pm

Plus One Of The Following Entrees:Basil Beef, Beef and Broccoli, Chi Thai Combination, Hunan Chicken, Sweet and Sour Chicken, Szechuan Bean Curd or Szechuan Pork.

*No Exceptions or Substitutions on Monthly Lunch Specials!

Specialty Drinks

Wines By The Glass

Soft Beverages

Appetizers

Soups

Poultry

Beef

Pork

Seafood

Vegetables

House Favorites

Regional Dishes

Thai Gourmet Cuisine

Noodles & Rice

Desserts

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Chi Thai Restaurant | Best Thai Cuisine in Columbus, OH!

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December 23rd, 2018 at 8:45 pm

Posted in Thai Chi

Tama Martial Arts Center

Posted: August 19, 2018 at 6:42 pm


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TAMA Martial Arts Center is truly dedicated to the development and improvement in the field of martial arts established since 1976 in the Dayton Metropolitan area. The premier in mixed martial arts since 1976 that brought Muay Thai Kickboxing, Kenpo Karate, Traditional Chinese Martial Arts-Tien Shan Pai Kung-Fu, Tai-Chi, Kobudo Training, Filipino Kali, Aikijutsu, TraditiionalJiu-Jitsu and Qi-Gong.

Through proper methodology and studies, continuous research and fine tuning of practical self-defense application, we will lead you on the road to self-discovery. Helping students build their self-confidence and life skill sets. Developing champions from within. Developing their life skills to succeed in life.

An institute for higher learning and tradition of excellence in the martial arts and its ideas, one will find it easy to grow with the highest expectations possible. Our pledge to help ones discovery is also our passion and commitment in our teachings at TAMA Center.

TAMA can be rewarding and challenge through any of the separate subjects we teach. Though students at TAMA have the option to cross train in as many other disciplines as they wish. With our pioneering spirit and a quest to be the best that you can be,join us in our adventure together in MARTIAL ARTS training.

TAMA Martial Arts | Dayton Martial Arts

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Tama Martial Arts Center

Written by admin

August 19th, 2018 at 6:42 pm

Posted in Thai Chi

Chi-tung Chinese & Thai Restaurant, Evergreen Park – Menu …

Posted: May 23, 2018 at 10:40 am


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Satay (6 Chicken Skewers)

chicken tender marinated with light herbs and coconut milk. served with our own delicious Peanut sauce, complimented with cucumber salad.

Spring Roll (2 Rolls)

fresh thai crepes filled with cucumbers, bean sprouts, tofu and scrambled eggs, topped with plum sauce and green onions.

Pot Sticker (8) (vegetable)

deep fried combination of cabbage, celery, onion, carrot, black mushroom and garlic wrapped in pastry.

Shu Mai

steamed shrimp dumpling served with a special thai vinegar & soy sauce, it's a very country style stuff.

Roti (asian Pancake)

asian pancake made of dough and egg, served with a side of malaysian chicken curry.

Soup

*hot and spicy upon request

Chicken (for Two)6.95

Shrimp (for Two)7.95

Hot And Sour Soup*

chicken breast (or shrimp), fresh mushrooms, kaffer lime leaves, crushed chili peppers, cilantro and fresh lemon juice in a lemon flavored broth.

Fresh Tofu And Chicken*

fresh tofu with chicken broth, mushroom, napa and green onions. it is a really delicious thai country soup.

Chicken (for Two)6.95

Shrimp (for Two)7.95

Coconut, Hot & Sour Soup*

traditional thai style with chicken breast(or shrimp) and fresh mushrooms in a tart lime broth and lemon grass, hot chili, cilantro, coconut ,milk and fresh lemon juice.

Salads

*hot and spicy upon request

Cucumber Salad*

fresh cucumber with a sweet and sour dressing topped with red onions and jalapeno peppers.

Pla Kong (shrimp Salad)*

shrimp mixed with chili paste, red onions, lemon grass, cilantro and lime juice. served on a bed of lettuce.

Seafood Salad*

boiled shrimp, squid and scallops mixed with chili paste, red onions, lemon grass, cilantro and lime juice served om a bed if lettuce.

Chicken (neem Sand)*

steamed chicken with lemon juice, fresh ginger, green onions and hot peppers, garnished with green leaf lettuce, and tomatoes.

Squid Salad (yum Squid)*

a really unique salad, fresh squid tossed with red onions, green lettuce leaves and cucumbers seasoned with our distinctive sauce.

Noodles - Spicy Basil Noodle

all noodles can be choice of hot, medium or mild

Plain

onion, bell pepper & peapods

Thai Entrees - Basil

served hot, medium or mild. your choice of meat with basil leaves, crushed fresh garlic, sweet pepper, green onion & mushroom in our special sauce.

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Chi-tung Chinese & Thai Restaurant, Evergreen Park - Menu ...

Written by simmons

May 23rd, 2018 at 10:40 am

Posted in Thai Chi

Chi Extraordinary Kitchen – 328 Photos & 258 Reviews …

Posted: January 27, 2018 at 2:46 am


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260

Came in on a Friday night for dinner with some friends. The food was really tasty we ordered the crispy egg rolls, shrimp with coconut ( I forgot the name), Tom Kha, - and Mango Salad to share. For my entree I ordered the spicy basil fried rice with mock duck, hubby ordered the spicy noodles. I tried the red curry, and pad kra pow as well. Everything and I mean everything was delicious. Everything had a great spice level and so flavorful. The service was great, everyone who helped us was super sweet. I highly recommend stopping here to grab a bite!

+ Great ambiance, cute and cozy. Pretty small place but there is also an outdoor seating area.+ Yummy Thai food. I had the mock duck larb - pretty good. Also tried the shrimp pad thai and the Red Sea (mixed seafood). Everything was good.+ Ample portion sizes.+ Friendly and efficient service.- Menu is a bit small. I'm used to seeing a bigger selection at Thai restaurants.

"Chi Extraordinary Kitchen": I like the name of this restaurant. At first, it could seem like bloated boasting to refer to one's kitchen as "extraordinary", but I take the designation at face value, and as a matter of pride. I also know that Asian restaurants often take liberties with their names [eg. "Number One Chinese Restaurant", etc.].Anyway, I arrived at Chi on Friday at 4:30 p.m., right when the dining room opened. I parked across the street and observed the blinds being raised, so I knew it was time to leave my car and walk to the front door. A woman was in the process of unlocking the door from the inside as I arrived. I would have expected perhaps that she would have propped open the door for me as she unlocked it directly in front of me. However, she just backed away from the door. When I stepped through the door into the reception, her welcome was not "extraordinarily" friendly, "like the named Kitchen", but it appears she was simply occupied with other opening duties, such as turning on the music, etc., for later, Sandy [that was her name] was all smiles and giggles in the Thai tradition.Sandy motioned with her hand towards the dining room and said "sit anywhere". I took a nice banquette by the widow. The room is high-ceilinged, airy and comfortable, with interesting lighting fixtures dangling overhead. A pretty miniature succulent is placed on each table. The tables are regrettably laid with paper napkins, seemingly incongruous with the simple elegance to which the restaurant appears to aspire. The wine list consists of six bottles of white wine and three bottles of red wine. I asked Sandy to please bring a bottle of the Alias Chardonnay. When I caught sight of her happily bringing me a glass of white wine, I inquired before she reached the table "What's that?", to which she responded "Your Alias Chardonnay". I again stated I had ordered a BOTTLE of Alias Chardonnay, and she immediately returned to the kitchen to retrieve a bottle as previously requested. The wine glasses were nice and large, which is always a plus. After the initial pour by Sandy, there were no further pours by any staff member. Why not?From the menu, which features photographs of many of the available dishes, I selected the "Pad Cha Salmon", which was described on the menu as Wild Salmon sauted in spicy Thai Pad Cha Sauce with green beans, lemongrass, peppercorn and fresh basil. I advised Sandy I liked spicy food, so when she asked me "How spicy?", I responded with a firm number "8". Sandy further cautioned me "I want you to know we do THAI spicy here", to which I replied that was perfectly understood and lucky "8" it would remain.When the Salmon was presented to the table, it was quite pretty to look at, although the jagged edge slices of carrots seemed ordinary. I asked Sandy for some lemon wedges to squeeze on the salmon, and she brought me limes. In response to my follow up inquiry as to lemons, she admitted "this is all we have". Of interest, as I looked at the dish, and readied my fork to "dive in", I noticed a six-inch long strand of shiny black hair languidly laced and intertwined among the salmon and vegetables. The longest hair on my head is one inch at the most, so I knew the interloper had not fallen from my head. I know there are those here on Yelp who go berserk when this issue occurs. However, I simply lifted the offending strand off of the salmon and laid it on a side plate. Although the presence of the hair certainly did not please me, I am not germ phobic. DNA is DNA after all, and it is shared germs and all when one kisses someone, so isn't it really all the same, despite this not being consensual? I did not mention the "wayward hair" issue to Sandy, since I certainly did not want to wait for another salmon to be prepared and I actually forgot all about it anyway before I left the restaurant. Dessert was a refreshing coconut ice cream, enjoyed with the last of the wine.

FIRST IMPRESSIONSClean, modern, and surprisingly quiet, Chi Extraordinary Kitchen was very inviting from the start. Granted, it appears I am their first customer of the day to dine in-house, the service has been cordially attentive.THE EATSJasmine Blossom tea -- Im a sucker for Jasmine green tea. It's one of my favorites because it's so calming. (Jasmine is the fragrance of home for me; I've always had night-blooming jasmine at every home I've made.)Somtom (green papaya salad) -- This is a dish I've been itching to try but have not made a priority to do so. Finally opted to order Chi's vegetarian versionGreen curry -- This curry is (rightly or wrongly) my litmus test of how I like a Thai restaurant. As a former vegetarian, it makes me happy to see their curry base is vegan (omitting the traditional shrimp paste). But I won't lie and say I don't wish they had a THE VERDICTChi Extraordinary Kitchen is a nice modern and approachable take on California Thai cuisine. If you're in the area and have a taste for Thai, this is a fantastic spot to satisfy that craving.

This place is gold! My girlfriend an I ended up coming here instead of cafe 21 because there was a wait. And all of the food is high quality and delicious!!! We did not expect it, hidden gemWe got the coconut shrimp, red curry, spicy shrimp noodles. We also got the chi lychee martini!! It was five star all day...

Decent Thai Food. The noodles and curry we ordered were perfectly okay. We did have issues with our take-out order, but they were all solved quickly!

It was a miserably hot day yesterday and my 2 girlfriends and I were looking for somewhere in North Park/Normal Heights for lunch. One recommended a couple places, but the other didn't have A/C so it was unanimous that we go to Chi. What a beautiful restaurant, casual yet upscale.The Miang Kham came highly recommended and two of us ordered it. It's a mix of grilled shrimp, toasted coconut, lime zest, ginger, and shallots on lettuce leaves ... with a delicious tamarind sauce. YUMMY!One had the Fresh Spring Rolls for her lunch and my other friend and I shared an order in addition to the Miang Kham. The Spring Rolls were tasty and the accompanying spicy sauce was quite good, too.Service was great and so was the food. I'm kind of torn between 4 and 5 stars...nothing to keep from giving 5 stars but I usually wait for a second visit. However, it was such a nice experience I'm going with 5 stars. Great job, Chi!

Good food, but not the best! I guess having spent so much time in Linda vista area- I really look for super authentic food. We came in about 12 PM at lunch and got seated immediately. Service was great and we were given water, menus right away. Super clean restaurant as well. My co worker and I both got the chicken kapow dish, which was great but again- wasn't the most authentic version of Thai. I asked for spice level 6 which I think they matched, so that was a refreshing change. Probably wouldn't come regularly unless I'm in the area.

Came here for lunch one day and had the whole place to ourselves. Service was quick and prompt -- as it should be when you are the only ones there. The lack of other customers had me concerned that we had chosen poorly, but we decided to proceed.I was hungry and promptly ordered the mango salad special with shrimp. There had to have been a whole mango. It was like a mango explosion. The shrimp were large and tasty as well. The citrus dressing made it all complete with just the right amount of tang. Overall, nicely done.I also decided to have the pad thai with shrimp. The noodles were fresh and good. The flavor was great. It was not too greasy as some pad thai can be. It was one of the better pad thai I have had. Would order again no doubt.The ambiance seems upscale and the decor is great. I think this place is quite good and warrants another visit for sure.

Quaint restaurant, lovely interior. Warm, friendly, attentive service from start to finish. Tried the tofu spring rolls, the crab/shrimp spring rolls, spicy noodles with crispy fish, papaya salad, green curry and mango and sticky rice. Everything was delicious. Generous portions. Spice level was perfect. Will definitely be back!

The food is great (and they even had organic beer for those you'd care to know about THAT :-)And then.........One day, We saw a young bird fall behind their beautiful outdoor planter box. The little guy (or gal) landed on the window frame where s/he got stuck as there was no space between the planter and the wall preventing access to the ground. We couldn't reach the bird from above as the box is so high and the distance to the window so narrow.We started to worry until we got unexpected help from the restaurant. (The restaurant was closed at that time!) This help was crucial to move the heavy planter and get the tiny bird out of its confinement.Thank you all at Chi's not only for running an excellent restaurant but also for your kindness and humanity!We love you guys!!

We went here out of a yelp review It's been there a year plusI zoom by often missing this MenuSign just upFirst off Excellent Flavors!!Beautiful presentation Food was "The Best" There should be a line at the door!Coconut Shrimp Catfish with red curry crispy fried basil Chicken with green Curry, potato, carrot I'm a retired Executive Chef I do know about great food, Please come and fall in love with this slick spot and there amazing flavors!C.R. Brown

A friend took me to dinner tonight at Chi restaurant, which was my first, rather skeptical, experience with Thai food. Whoever designed the decor in that restaurant nailed it. I loved the decor, the colors and the elegant simplicity. But even better was the food. It was incredible and the waitstaff was professional and very friendly. Our water took the time to explain the menu and accommodate my order. The owner Patti really hit the bullseye on this venture. I plan to take my aunt there when she visits me next month.

The food is nicely presented and the dishes are tasty. It wasn't too crowded when we went, and the service was fast and friendly.

Sawadii-khap!Thai food seems to be a bit less trendy these days, but so glad this place came to the north end of North Park. Solid offering of tasty "aloy-ma-ma" (extra delicious) dishes. We tried the tofu lettuce wrap apps, green curry with mixed seafood and massaman curry with roasted chicken. Goodbeer and wine to accompany our dishes. I ordered spice level 6 with the green curry but should have pushed it a bit higher.Super great staff, including hulking body builder Thai guy and two gorgeous young ladies. Prices a bit on the high side but not outrageous, especially for dinner (we did not go there for cheap business day lunch special).Will return. There's plenty more to try. Khrap-Kuhn-Khap!!!

The name does say it all for this quaint healthy Asian eatery. Locally sources vegetables combined with solid recipes explain why people were in and out all night getting take out orders. Seating is sparce but the food is worth the wait. For an appetizer I had the fried spring rolls; they were light and crisp with a perfect sweet sauce. My entree was shrimp and crab curry noodles and coconut shrimp. These were the biggest coconut shrimp I have ever had and the noodles were very satisfying. I am definitely come back to try more of the menu. Prices are very reasonable and the service was quick and friendly. Parking was the hardest part, but side streets solved that problem with ease.

I just finished having lunch at Chi and I am in love with it. The decor creates a relaxing yet trendy atmosphere. My friend and I both had the spicy basil noodles and they were amazing. This was exactly what I was envisioning for my yummy Thai lunch. Our meals came with a soup and delicious yellow curry samosas. Our server was very attentive and took special care of my friend's 2-year old. Chi was enjoyed by all three of us.

I've been here twice for dinner and both time, the quality of the ingredients were fresh. Also, I feel they don't use as much MSG as other thai places. I liked the curry and spicy basil fried rice, Pad Thai was ok but not the best. Overall, It's a nice place and service.

The quality of the ingredients was great but they use way too much Sugar. Our Tom kah would had been very good if not for the amount of Sugar and too much lime. I like a lot of lime but this was out of proportionI thought infact they might have tried to correct with lime the too much Sugar they used or vice versaI had drunken noodles After and again they would have been really good if not for the Sugar. Same with my husband s dish ( he had garlic broccoli and again same issue)A lot of beers to choose fromI had a coconut creme drink that tasted like nothingWish they revised the Sugar content of their recipesPlumeria still is my favorite thai in SD

This is my go-to place for great Thai food. A small place with good food. I always order the Tom Yum, Ginger fish (ask for steamed) and Mock Duck Garlic Pepper. The Tom Yum has a lemony flavor and a bite of pepper. I like it with vegetables only. We once ordered the Ginger fish and didn't specify steamed. The fish was fried and made the dish oily. My favorite is the Mock Duck Garlic Pepper. The mock duck is crispy, not rubbery and served with steamed broccoli.The service is homey, can be a bit slow if they are busy.

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Chi Extraordinary Kitchen - 328 Photos & 258 Reviews ...

Written by simmons

January 27th, 2018 at 2:46 am

Posted in Thai Chi

Martial Arts UCSD Recreation

Posted: January 20, 2018 at 5:43 pm


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The Rec Class Martial Arts program includes classes in 25 traditional art forms derived from Brazil, China, Japan, Korea as well as more modern hybrid arts that bring a more Western approach to the martial arts practices. There are also a number of martial arts that are competitive in nature and represent UCSD in collegiate tournaments and events, which are housed under the moniker of "Combatives Teams".

Learn the fundamentals of The Way of Harmony or increase your knowledge of this sensible model of dealing with conflict. Improve your focus of centering yourself and quick response while learning the important aspects of defending yourself.Class Policies

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Learn the fundamentals or improve upon your own abilities to effectively utilize these ground fighting and grappling methods. Increase your knowledge of self-defense by practicing chokes, arm locks, shoulder wrenches and much more!Class Policies

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Learn the basics or improve your skills in this Brazilian combination of self-defense, dance, music , and acrobatics. Increase your ability to protect yourself while also getting a full body workout.Class Policies

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Learn the fundamentals or improve your abilities in this eclectic Korean martial art. Increase your ability to kick, punch and throw while having fun in this friendly environment.Class Policies

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Learn the basics or increase your skills in this art of Japanese swordsmanship. Become skilled in wielding your sword while also learning the ways of this historic self-defense.Class Policies

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Learn the basics or increase your skills in this martial art and Olympic sport. Learn the principle of flexibility in the application of throwing, grappling, falling and submission techniques.Class Policies

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Learn the basics or improve your skills in this Japanese Way of the Sword. Improve your footwork and motions while learning the art of the Samurai.Class Policies

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Introduce aspects of this martial art or improve upon existing skills while learning the ways of this ancient method of self-defense. Increase your self-discipline and body-strength while learning grappling techniques and hand-to-hand combat.Class Policies

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Learn the basics or increase your abilities in this comprehensive Filipino martial art. Introduce concepts of power and speed while learning weapon and empty hand applications.Class Policies

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Muay Thai, the national sport of Thailand, is known for its direct applications of elbows and knees. Classes will include boxing, kicking, as well as defensive techniques. Throws and trips will be covered; conditioning will be a primary focus.Class Policies

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Learn the aspects of this stylized Chinese martial art or improve upon existing skills. Increase your ability to focus on the art and flow of energy in the body while also learning the purposeful movements of Tai chi.Class Policies

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Increase your ability to defend yourself. Learn to develop awareness of your surroundings and avoid physical confrontations.Class Policies

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Increase your knowledge of this classic martial art involving both weapons and distinctive stances. Learn the fundamental kicks, punches and jumps while becoming more balanced in all your movements.Class Policies

View Class Schedule >Visit Team >

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Martial Arts UCSD Recreation

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January 20th, 2018 at 5:43 pm

Posted in Thai Chi

Labor Day Hike, Bike & Paddle draws huge crowd to Waterfront Park … – WHAS 11.com

Posted: September 4, 2017 at 8:42 pm


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It's become a tradition here in Kentuckiana, the Hike, Bike and Paddle event is held every Labor and Memorial Day at Waterfront Park.

Julia Rose, WHAS 1:11 PM. EDT September 04, 2017

(WHAS11) -- A warm, sunny Labor Day morning brought hundreds to Louisvilles Waterfront Park for the Hike, Bike & Paddle event on Monday. The twice-annual event has become a holiday tradition in Kentuckiana that many say they look forward to every year.

The Hike Bike & Paddle is held every Memorial and Labor Day where people take their pick from a 5k hike, 9.5-mile bike ride or a paddle on the Ohio River.

The event is now in its 11th year and Louisville Mayor Greg Fischer says it's amazing to see how the community has embraced the idea.

Everyone's happy, they come from all over the city, everybody's getting an early morning workout in so it's just a great way to start the day, said Fischer.

From Zumba to Thai Chi, there's something for everyone, even the furry friends.

Weve got everything from floating dogs out here to 90-year-old grandmas riding their bikes out here so I think it's going to be a record crowd, said Fischer.

People participating say the Hike, Bike & Paddle exemplifies this unique and proud community by giving people across the area the chance to exercise while exploring the city by foot, bike or boat.

2017 WHAS-TV

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Labor Day Hike, Bike & Paddle draws huge crowd to Waterfront Park ... - WHAS 11.com

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September 4th, 2017 at 8:42 pm

Posted in Thai Chi

Thai cuisine – Wikipedia

Posted: June 18, 2017 at 9:46 pm


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Thai cuisine (Thai: , rtgs:Ahan Thai, pronounced[.hn tj]) is the national cuisine of Thailand. Balance, detail, and variety are of paramount significance to Thai chefs.

Thai cooking places emphasis on lightly prepared dishes with strong aromatic components and a spicy edge. It is known[by whom?] for its complex interplay of at least three and up to four or five fundamental taste senses in each dish or the overall meal: sour, sweet, salty, bitter, and spicy. Australian chef David Thompson, an expert on Thai food, observes that unlike many other cuisines,[1] Thai cooking rejects simplicity and is about "the juggling of disparate elements to create a harmonious finish". Thai chef McDang characterises Thai food as demonstrating "intricacy; attention to detail; texture; color; taste; and the use of ingredients with medicinal benefits, as well as good flavor", as well as care being given to the food's appearance, smell and context.[2]

Thai cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines in the world.[citation needed] In 2011, seven of Thailand's popular dishes appeared on the list of the "World's 50 Most Delicious Foods (Readers' Pick)" a worldwide online poll of 35,000 people by CNN Travel.[unreliable source?] Thailand had more dishes on the list than any other country. They were: tom yam goong (4th), pad Thai (5th), som tam (6th), massaman curry (10th), green curry (19th), Thai fried rice (24th) and moo nam tok (36th).[3][4]

Thai cuisine is more accurately described as four regional cuisines, corresponding to the four main regions of the country:

Thai cuisine and the culinary traditions and cuisines of Thailand's neighbors have mutually influenced one another over the course of many centuries. Regional variations tend to correlate to neighboring states (often sharing the same cultural background and ethnicity on both sides of the border) as well as climate and geography. Northern Thai cuisine shares dishes with Shan State in Burma, northern Laos, and also with Yunnan Province in China, whereas the cuisine of Isan (northeastern Thailand) is similar to that of southern Laos, and is also influenced by Khmer cuisine from Cambodia to its south, and by Vietnamese cuisine to its east. Southern Thailand, with many dishes that contain liberal amounts of coconut milk and fresh turmeric, has that in common with Indian, Malaysian, and Indonesian cuisine.[6][7][8] In addition to these four regional cuisines, there is also the Thai royal cuisine which can trace its history back to the cosmopolitan palace cuisine of the Ayutthaya kingdom (13511767 CE). Its refinement, cooking techniques, presentation, and use of ingredients were of great influence to the cuisine of the central Thai plains.[9][10][11]

Many dishes that are now popular in Thailand were originally Chinese dishes. They were introduced to Thailand by the Hokkien people starting in the 15th century, and by the Teochew people who started settling in larger numbers from the late 18th century CE onward, mainly in the towns and cities, and now form the majority of the Thai Chinese.[12][13][14] Such dishes include chok Thai: (rice porridge), salapao (steamed buns), kuaitiao rat na (fried rice-noodles) and khao kha mu (stewed pork with rice). The Chinese also introduced the use of a wok for cooking, the technique of deep-frying and stir frying dishes, several types of noodles, taochiao (fermented bean paste), soy sauces, and tofu.[15] The cuisines of India and Persia, brought first by traders, and later settlers from these regions, with their use of dried spices, gave rise to Thai adaptations and dishes such as kaeng kari (yellow curry)[16] and kaeng matsaman (massaman curry).[17][18]

Western influences, starting in 1511 CE when the first diplomatic mission from the Portuguese arrived at the court of Ayutthaya, have created dishes such as foi thong, the Thai adaptation of the Portuguese fios de ovos, and sangkhaya, where coconut milk replaces unavailable cow's milk in making a custard.[19] These dishes were said to have been brought to Thailand in the 17th century by Maria Guyomar de Pinha, a woman of mixed Japanese-Portuguese-Bengali ancestry who was born in Ayutthaya, and became the wife of Constantine Phaulkon, the Greek adviser of King Narai. The most notable influence from the West must be the introduction of the chili pepper from the Americas in the 16th or 17th century. It, and rice, are now two of the most important ingredients in Thai cuisine.[20] During the Columbian Exchange, Portuguese and Spanish ships brought new crops from the Americas including tomatoes, corn, papaya, pea eggplants, pineapple, pumpkins, culantro, cashews, and peanuts.

Thai food was traditionally eaten with the right hand [21][22] while seated on mats or carpets on the floor, customs still found in the more traditional households. Today, however, most Thais eat with a fork and spoon. Tables and chairs were introduced as part of a broader Westernization drive during the reign of King Mongkut, Rama IV. The fork and spoon were introduced by King Chulalongkorn after his return from a tour of Europe in 1897 CE.[23]

Important to Thai dining is the practice of khluk, mixing the flavors and textures of different dishes with the rice from one's plate. The food is pushed by the fork, held in the left hand, into the spoon held in the right hand, which is then brought to the mouth.[24] A traditional ceramic spoon is sometimes used for soup, and knives are not generally used at the table.[2] It is common practice for both the Thais and the hill tribe peoples who live in Lanna and Isan to use sticky rice as an edible implement by shaping it into small, and sometimes flattened, balls by hand (and only the right hand by custom) which are then dipped into side dishes and eaten.

Chopsticks were foreign utensils to most ethnic groups in Thailand with the exception of the Thai Chinese, and a few other cultures such as the Akha people, who are recent arrivals from Yunnan Province, China. Traditionally, the majority of ethnic Thai people ate with their hands like the people of India. Chopsticks are mainly used in Thailand for eating Chinese-style noodle soups, or at Chinese, Japanese, or Korean restaurants. Stir fried noodle dishes such as pad Thai, and curry-noodle dishes such as khanom chin nam ngiao, are also eaten with a fork and spoon in the Thai fashion.

Thai meals typically consist of rice (khao in Thai) with many complementary dishes shared by all. The dishes are all served at the same time, including the soups, and it is also customary to provide more dishes than there are guests at a table. A Thai family meal would normally consist of rice with several dishes which should form a harmonious contrast of flavors and textures as well as preparation methods. Traditionally, a meal would have at least five elements: a dip or relish for raw or cooked vegetables (khrueang chim) is the most crucial component of any Thai meal.[25][26]Khrueang chim, considered a building block of Thai food by Chef McDang, may come in the form of a spicy chili sauce or relish called nam phrik (made of raw or cooked chilies and other ingredients, which are then mashed together), or a type of dip enriched with coconut milk called lon. The other elements would include a clear soup (perhaps a spicy tom yam or a mellow tom chuet), a curry or stew (essentially any dish identified with the kaeng prefix), a deep-fried dish and a stir fried dish of meat, fish, seafood, or vegetables.

In most Thai restaurants, diners will have access to a selection of Thai sauces (nam chim) and condiments, either brought to the table by wait staff or present at the table in small containers. These may include: phrik nam pla/nam pla phrik (fish sauce, lime juice, chopped chilies and garlic), dried chili flakes, sweet chili sauce, sliced chili peppers in rice vinegar, Sriracha sauce, and even sugar. With certain dishes, such as khao kha mu (pork trotter stewed in soy sauce and served with rice), whole Thai peppers and raw garlic are served in addition to the sour chili sauce. Cucumber is sometimes eaten to cool the mouth with particularly spicy dishes. They often feature as a garnish, especially with one-dish meals. The plain rice, sticky rice or the khanom chin (Thai rice noodles) served alongside a spicy Thai curry or stir fry, tends to counteract the spiciness.

When time is limited or when eating alone, single dishes, such as fried rice or noodle soups, are quick and filling. An alternative is to have one or smaller helpings of curry, stir fries and other dishes served together on one plate with a portion of rice. This style of serving food is called khao rat kaeng (lit., "rice covered with curry"), or for short khao kaeng (lit., "rice curry"). Eateries and shops that specialize in pre-made food are the usual place to go to for having a meal this way. These venues have a large display showing the different dishes one can choose. When placing their order at these places, Thais will state if they want their food served as separate dishes, or together on one plate with rice (rat khao). Very often, regular restaurants will also feature a selection of freshly made "rice curry" dishes on their menu for single customers.

Thailand has about the same land area as Spain and a length of approximately 1,650 kilometers or 1,025 miles (Italy, in comparison, is about 1,250 kilometers or 775 miles long), with foothills of the Himalayas in the north, a high plateau in the northeast, a verdant river basin in the center, and tropical rainforests and islands in the south. With over 40 distinct ethnic groups each with its own culture and even more languages,[27] it comes as no surprise that Thai cuisine, as a whole, features many different ingredients (suan phasom; Thai: ), and ways of preparing food.

Thai food is known for its enthusiastic use of fresh (rather than dried) herbs and spices. Common flavors in Thai food come from garlic, galangal, coriander/cilantro, lemon grass, shallots, pepper, kaffir lime leaves, shrimp paste, fish sauce, and chilies. Palm sugar, made from the sap of certain Borassus palms, is used to sweeten dishes while lime and tamarind contribute sour notes. Meats used in Thai cuisine are usually pork and chicken, and also duck, beef, and water buffalo. Goat and mutton are rarely eaten except by Muslim Thais. Game, such as wild boar, deer and wild birds, are now less common due to loss of habitat, the introduction of modern methods of intensive animal farming in the 1960s, and the rise of agribusinesses, such as Thai Charoen Pokphand Foods, in the 1980s.[28] Traditionally, fish, crustaceans, and shellfish play an important role in the diet of Thai people.[29]Anna Leonowens (of The King and I fame) observed in her book The English Governess at the Siamese Court (1870):[30]

"The stream is rich in fish of excellent quality and flavour, such as is found in most of the great rivers of Asia; and is especially noted for its platoo, a kind of sardine, so abundant and cheap that it forms a common seasoning to the labourer's bowl of rice."

Freshwater varieties come from the many rivers, lakes, ponds, and paddy fields inland, and seafood from the tropical seas of the southern half of the country. Some species, such as the giant river prawn, need brackish water as juveniles but live out their lives in freshwater once mature. Aquaculture of species such as Nile tilapia, catfish, tiger prawns, and blood cockles, now generates a large portion of the seafood sold in, and exported from Thailand.[31]

Like most other Asian cuisines, rice is the staple grain of Thai cuisine. According to Thai food expert McDang, rice is the first and most important part of any meal, and the words for rice and food are the same: khao. As in many other rice eating cultures, to say "eat rice" (in Thai "kin khao"; pronounced as "keen cow") means to eat food. Rice is such an integral part of the diet that a common Thai greeting is "kin khao reu yang?" which literally translates as "Have you eaten rice yet?".[32]

Thai farmers historically have cultivated tens of thousands of rice varieties. The traditional recipe for a rice dish could include as many as 30 varieties of rice.[33] That number has been drastically reduced due to genetic modifications.

Non-glutinous rice (Oryza sativa) is called khao chao (lit., "princely rice"). One type, which is indigenous to Thailand, is the highly prized, sweet-smelling jasmine rice (khao hom Mali). This naturally aromatic long-grained rice grows in abundance in the patchwork of paddy fields that blanket Thailand's central plains. Once the rice is steamed or cooked, it is called khao suai (lit., "beautiful rice"). Non-glutinous rice is used for making fried rice dishes, and for congee, of which there are three main varieties: khao tom (a thin rice soup, most often with minced pork or fish), khao tom kui (a thick, unflavored rice porridge that is served with side dishes), or chok (a thick rice porridge that is flavored with broth and minced meat).

Other varieties of rice eaten in Thailand include: sticky rice (khao niao), a unique variety of rice which contains an unusual balance of the starches present in all rice, causing it to cook up to a sticky texture. Sticky rice, not jasmine rice, is a staple food in the local cuisines of northern Thailand and of Isan (northeastern Thailand), both regions of Thailand directly adjacent to Laos with which they share many cultural traits. Thai Red Cargo rice, an unpolished long grain rice with an outer deep reddish-brown color and a white center, has a nutty taste and slightly chewy compared to the soft and gummy texture of jasmine rice. Only the husks of the red rice grains are removed which allows it to retain all its nutrients and vitamins, but unlike brown rice, its red color comes from antioxidants in the bran. Black sticky rice is a type of sticky rice with a deep purple-red color that may appear black. Another unpolished grain, black sticky rice has a rich nutty flavor that is most often used in desserts.

Noodles are usually made from either rice flour, wheat flour or mung bean flour. Khanom chin is fresh rice vermicelli made from fermented rice, and eaten with spicy curries such as green chicken curry (khanom chin kaeng khiao wan kai) or with salads such as som tam. Other rice noodles, adapted from Chinese cuisine to suit Thai taste, are called kuaitiao in Thailand and come in three varieties: sen yai are wide flat noodles, sen lek are thin flat rice noodles, and sen mi (also known as rice vermicelli in the West) are round and thin. Bami is made from egg and wheat flour and usually sold fresh. They are similar to the Teochew mee pok. Wun sen, called cellophane noodles in English, are extremely thin noodles made from mung bean flour which are sold dried. Thai noodle dishes, whether stir fried like phat Thai or in the form of a noodle soup, usually come as an individual serving and are not meant to be shared and eaten communally.

Rice flour (paeng khao chao) and tapioca flour (paeng man sampalang) are often used in desserts or as thickening agents.

An ingredient found in many Thai dishes and used in every region of the country is nam pla, a clear fish sauce that is very aromatic. Fish sauce is a staple ingredient in Thai cuisine and imparts a unique character to Thai food. Fish sauce is prepared with fermented fish that is made into a fragrant condiment and provides a salty flavor. There are many varieties of fish sauce and many variations in the way it is prepared. Some fish may be fermented with shrimp or spices. Another type of sauce made from fermented fish is pla ra. It is more pungent than nam pla, and, in contrast to nam pla, which is a clear liquid, pla ra is opaque and often contains pieces of fish. To add this sauce to a som tam (spicy papaya salad) is a matter of choice. Kapi, Thai shrimp paste, is a combination of fermented ground shrimp and salt. It is used in the famous chili paste called nam phrik kapi, in rice dishes such as khao khluk kapi and it is indispensable for making Thai curry pastes. Tai pla is a pungent sauce used in the southern Thai cuisine, that is made from the fermented innards of the shortbodied mackerel (pla thu).[34] It is one of the main condiments of kaeng tai pla curry and is also used to make nam phrik tai pla.[35] Far removed from the nearest sea, from northern Thailand comes nam pu, a thick, black paste made by boiling mashed rice-paddy crabs for hours. It is used as an ingredient for certain northern Thai salads, curries, and chili pastes. It too has a strong and pungent flavor.[36]

Nam phrik are Thai chili pastes, similar to the Indonesian and Malaysian sambals. Each region has its own special versions. The words "nam phrik" are used by Thais to describe many pastes containing chilies used for dipping, although the more watery versions tend to be called nam chim. Thai curry pastes are normally called phrik kaeng or khrueang kaeng (lit. curry ingredients), but some people also use the word nam phrik to designate a curry paste. Red curry paste, for instance, could be called phrik kaeng phet or khrueang kaeng phet in Thai, but also nam phrik kaeng phet. Both nam phrik and phrik kaeng are prepared by crushing together chilies with various ingredients such as garlic and shrimp paste using a mortar and pestle. Some nam phrik are served as a dip with vegetables such as cucumbers, cabbage and yard-long beans, either raw or blanched. One such paste is nam phrik num, a paste of pounded fresh green chilies, shallots, garlic and coriander leaves. The sweet roasted chili paste called nam phrik phao is often used as an ingredient in tom yam or when frying meat or seafood, and it is also popular as a spicy "jam" on bread, or served as a dip with prawn crackers. The dry nam phrik kung, made with pounded dried shrimp (kung haeng), is often eaten plain with rice and a few slices of cucumber. French diplomat Simon de la Loubre observed that chili pastes were vital for the way Thai people eat. He provides us with a recipe for nam phrik with pla ra and onions in Du Royaume de Siam, an account of his mission to Thailand published in 1691.[37]

The soy sauces which are used in Thai cuisine are of Chinese origin, and the Thai names for them are (wholly or partially) loanwords from the Teochew dialect: si-io dam (dark soy sauce), si-io khao (light soy sauce), si-io wan (sweet soy sauce), and taochiao (fermented whole soy beans). Namman hoi (oyster sauce) is also of Chinese origin. It is used extensively in vegetable and meat stir fries.

Thai dishes use a wide variety of herbs, spices and leaves rarely found in the West. The characteristic flavor of kaffir lime leaves (bai makrut) appears in many Thai soups (e.g., the hot and sour tom yam) or curry from the southern and central areas of Thailand. The Thai lime (manao) is smaller, darker and sweeter than the kaffir lime, which has a rough looking skin with a stronger lime flavor. Kaffir lime leaves or rind is frequently combined with galangal (kha) and lemongrass (takhrai), either kept whole in simmered dishes or blended together with liberal amounts of chilies and other aromatics to make curry paste. Fresh Thai basil, distintively redolent of cloves, and with stems which are often tinged with a purple color, are used to add fragrance in certain dishes such as green curry. Other commonly used herbs in Thai cuisine include phak chi, (coriander or cilantro leaves), rak phak chi (cilantro/coriander roots), spearmint (saranae), holy basil (kraphao), ginger (khing), turmeric (khamin), fingerroot (krachai), culantro (phak chi farang), pandanus leaves (bai toei), and Thai lemon basil (maenglak). Spices and spice mixtures used in Thai cuisine include phong phalo (five-spice powder), phong kari (curry powder), and fresh and dried peppercorns (phrik thai). Northern Thai larb uses a very elaborate spice mix, called phrik lap, which includes ingredients such as cumin, cloves, long pepper, star anise, prickly ash seeds and cinnamon.[38]

Besides kaffir lime leaves, several other tree leaves are used in Thai cuisine such as cha-om, the young feathery leaves of the Acacia pennata tree. These leaves can be cooked in omelettes, soups and curries or eaten raw in northern Thai salads. Banana leaves are often used as packaging for ready-made food or as steamer cups such as in ho mok pla, a spicy steamed pt or souffl made with fish and coconut milk. Banana flowers are also used in Thai salads or as a vegetable ingredient for certain curries. The leaves and flowers of the neem tree (sadao) are also eaten blanched. Phak lueat (leaves from the Ficus virens) are cooked in curries, and bai makok (from the Spondias mombin) can be eaten raw with a chili paste.

Five main chilies are generally used as ingredients in Thai food. One chili is very small (about 1.25 centimetres (0.49in)) and is known as the hottest chili: phrik khi nu suan ("garden mouse-dropping chili"). The slightly larger chili phrik khi nu ("mouse-dropping chili") is the next hottest. The green or red phrik chi fa ("sky pointing chili") is slightly less spicy than the smaller chilies. The very large phrik yuak, which is pale green in color, is the least spicy and used more as a vegetable. Lastly, the dried chilies: phrik haeng are spicier than the two largest chilies and dried to a dark red color.

Other typical ingredients are the several types of eggplant (makhuea) used in Thai cuisine, such as the pea-sized makhuea phuang and the egg-sized makhuea suai, often also eaten raw. Although broccoli is often used in Asian restaurants in the west in phat phak ruam (stir fried mixed vegetables) and rat na (rice noodles served in gravy), it was never used in any traditional Thai food in Thailand and is still rarely seen in Thailand. Usually in Thailand, khana is used, for which broccoli is a substitute. Other vegetables which are often eaten in Thailand are thua fak yao (yardlong beans), thua ngok (bean sprouts), no mai (bamboo shoots), tomatoes, cucumbers, phak tam lueng (Coccinia grandis), phak kha na (Chinese kale), phak kwangtung (choy sum), sweet potatoes (both the tuber and leaves), a few types of squash, phak krathin (Leucaena leucocephala), sato (Parkia speciosa), tua ph (winged beans) and khaophot (corn).

Among the green, leafy vegetables and herbs that are usually eaten raw in a meal or as a side dish in Thailand, the most important are: phak bung (morning glory), horapha (Thai basil), bai bua bok (Asian pennywort), phak kachet (water mimosa), phak kat khao (Chinese cabbage), phak phai (praew leaves), phak kayang (rice paddy herb), phak chi farang (culantro), phak tiu (Cratoxylum formosum), phak "phaai" (yellow burr head) and kalampl (cabbage).[39] Some of these leaves are highly perishable and must be used within a couple of days.

Several types of mushroom (het) also feature in Thai cuisine such as straw mushrooms (het fang), shiitake (het hom), and white jelly fungus (het hu nu khao).[40]

Flowers are also commonly used ingredients in many Thai dishes, either as a vegetable, such as dok khae (Sesbania grandiflora) and huapli (the flower bud of the banana), or as a food coloring, such as with the blue-colored dok anchan (the flowers of the Clitoria ternatea, which can also be eaten raw or fried).

Fresh fruit forms a large part of the Thai diet, and are customarily served after a meal as dessert. The Scottish author John Crawfurd, sent on an embassy to Bangkok in 1822, writes in his account of the journey:

"The fruits of Siam, or at least of the neighbourhood of Bangkok, are excellent and various, surpassing, according to the experience of our party (...) those of all other parts of India."[41] The Siamese themselves consume great quantities of fruit, and the whole neighbourhood of Bangkok is one forest of fruit trees.[42]

Fruit is not only eaten on its own, but often served with spicy dips made from sugar, salt, and chilies.[43] Fruits feature in spicy salads such as som tam (green papaya salad) and yam som-o (pomelo salad), in soups with tamarind juice such as tom khlong and kaeng som, and in Thai curries such as kaeng kanun (jackfruit curry), kaeng pet phet yang (grilled duck curry with pineapple or grapes), and kaeng pla sapparot (fish and pineapple curry). Fruits are also used in certain Thai chili pastes, such as in nam phrik long rue made with madan (a close relative of the mangosteen),[44] and nam phrik luk nam liap, made with the fruit of the Chinese olive.[45]

Although many of the exotic fruits of Thailand may have been sometimes unavailable in Western countries, Asian markets now import such fruits as rambutan and lychees. In Thailand one can find papaya, jackfruit, mango, mangosteen, langsat, longan, pomelo, pineapple, rose apples, durian, Burmese grapes and other native fruits. Chantaburi in Thailand each year holds the World Durian Festival in early May. This single province is responsible for half of the durian production of Thailand and a quarter of the world production.[46][47][48] The Langsat Festival is held each year in Uttaradit on weekends in September. The langsat (Lansium parasiticum), for which Uttaradit is famous, is a fruit that is similar in taste to the longan.[49]

From the coconut comes coconut milk, used both in curries and desserts, and coconut oil. The juice of a green coconut can be served as a drink and the young flesh is eaten in either sweet or savory dishes. The grated flesh of a mature coconut is used raw or toasted in sweets, salads and snacks such as miang kham.[50] Thais not only consume products derived from the nut (actually a drupe), but they also make use of the growth bud of the palm tree as a vegetable. From the stalk of the flowers comes a sap that can be used to make coconut vinegar, alcoholic beverages, and sugar. Coconut milk and other coconut-derived ingredients feature heavily in the cuisines of central and southern Thailand. In contrast to these regions, coconut palms do not grow as well in northern and northeastern Thailand, where in wintertime the temperatures are lower and where there is a dry season that can last five to six months. In northern Thai cuisine, only a few dishes, most notably the noodle soup khao soi, use coconut milk. In the southern parts of northeastern Thailand, where the region borders Cambodia, one can again find dishes containing coconut. It is also here that the people eat non-glutinous rice, just as in central and southern Thailand, and not glutinous rice as they do in northern Thailand and in the rest of northeastern Thailand.[51][52]

Apples, pears, peaches, grapes, and strawberries, which do not traditionally grow in Thailand and in the past had to be imported, have become increasingly popular in the last few decades since they were introduced to Thai farmers by the Thai Royal Projects, starting in 1969, and the Doi Tung Project since 1988. These temperate fruit grow especially well in the cooler, northern Thai highlands, where they were initially introduced as a replacement for the cultivation of opium, together with other crops such as cabbages, tea, and aribica coffee.

According to the Thai government's The Eleventh National Economic and Social Development Plan (2012-1016), Thailand is number one in the world in the application of chemicals in agriculture. The report stated that, "The use of chemicals in the agricultural and industrial sectors is growing while control mechanisms are ineffective making Thailand rank first in the world in the use of registered chemicals in agriculture."[53]:111

The Thai Pesticide Alert Network (Thai-PAN), a food safety advocacy group, regularly tests Thai farm produce for contamination. In their August 2016 evaluation, the group found that of 158 samples, 56 percent of produce was found to have unsafe levels of chemicals. A spokesperson for the group said that 70.2 percent of the produce from supermarkets was contaminated. Chinese kale topped the list of contaminated vegetables with 10 out of 11 samples containing residues. Red chillies (9 of 12) came in second, followed by cowpeas and basil (8 of 12), morning glory (7 of 12), small eggplants (6 of 11), cucumbers (5 of 11), tomatoes (3 of 11), cabbage (2 of 11), and Chinese cabbage (2 of 12). Among fruits, Sai Nam Phueng oranges were most contaminated as traces of chemicals were found in all eight samples. They were followed by dragon fruit (7 of 8), guava (6 of 7), papaya (3 of 6), watermelon (3 of 7), and cantaloupe (1 of 7).[54]

"Q-Mark" goods showed a higher prevalence of contamination, 61.5 percent, than they did during Thai-PAN's March 2016 survey, 57 percent. Q-Mark is the National Bureau of Agricultural Commodity and Food Standards (ACFS) mark of quality.[55][56]

Whereas many Thai dishes are now familiar in the West, the vast majority are not. In many of the dishes below, different kinds of protein, or combinations of protein, are interchangeable as the main ingredient. Beef (nuea), chicken (kai), pork (mu), duck (pet), tofu (taohu), fish (pla), prawns or shrimp (kung), crab (pu), shellfish (hoi), or egg (khai) can, for example, all be used as main ingredients for kaeng phet (red curry). Kaeng phet kai will be red curry with chicken, kaeng phet mu with pork, etc..

Khao chao (Thai: ; lit. "morning rice/food"), breakfast dishes, for Thais are limited. Very often, a Thai breakfast can consist of the same dishes with rice which are also eaten for lunch or dinner. Single dishes such as fried rice, noodle soups, and steamed rice with something simple such as an omelette, fried/grilled pork or chicken, or a stir fry with vegetables, are commonly sold for breakfast from street stalls as a quick take-out.

The following dishes are viewed as being specific breakfast dishes but they can also be found at any other moment of the day:[59][60]

Known as ahan chan diao (Thai: ; lit., "single dish food"), it is not only the name for true single plate dishes, but also for dishes that are served "rat khao" (lit., "poured on rice"): one or more dishes are served together with rice on one plate. Some of these eateries offer a large selection of (pre-cooked) dishes, others are specialized in only a one, or a few dishes with rice.

Ahan Phak Klang (Thai: ; lit. "central region food") is most often eaten with the non-glutinous jasmine rice. The cuisine has also incorporated many Thai Chinese dishes.

Ahan Isan (Thai: ; lit. "Isan food") generally features dishes similar to those found in Laos, as Isan people historically have close ties with Lao culture and speak a language that is generally mutually intelligible with the Lao language. The staple food of Isan is glutinous rice and most of the Isaan food is spicy and cooked with local ingredients found on the farms all through northeastern Thailand. Isaan people primarily get their income from farming. Rice, sugar cane, pineapple, potato, and rubber are all farmed in this region.

Ahan Lanna (Thai: ; lit. "Lanna food") shares certain dishes with neighboring Shan State, in Burma, and with northern Laos. As in northeastern Thailand, glutinous rice, not jasmine rice, is eaten as the staple food.

Ahan Phak Tai (Thai: ; lit. "southern region food") shares certain dishes with the cuisine of northern Malaysia. Southern Thais, just like the people of central Thailand to the north, and the people of Malaysia to the south, eat non-glutinous rice as their staple food.

Bai Leang or Gnetum gnemon (scientific name ) is green leaf vegetable. Normally, vegetables are beneficial to our body because they contain fibers, variety of vitamins and minerals. Especially, Bai Leang which also has antioxidants which can be converted to Vitamin A and help to maintain eye health. Eggs in this dish also benefit to our body because there is a lot of protein mixed with vitamins and high density lipoprotein (HDL) from oil that is used for cooking. Moreover, Oil can dissolve vitamins in Bai Leang in order to make it easy to be absorbed and used. Bai Leang Pad Kai is a useful dish and is recommended for children or elderly to consume. The only warning is to be careful with oil that is used for cooking. It should be good quality oil and not used excessively.

(Thai: ; rtgs:khong wan) lit. "sweet things"). Although most Thai meals finish with fresh fruit, sometimes sweet snacks, often eaten between meals, will also be served as a dessert.

Ice cream was introduced to Thailand during the reign of King Rama V when the first ice cream machine was imported to Thailand.[69] Ice cream in the second half of the 19th century was made of coconut water blended with ice. At first, ice couldn't be produced in Thailand. That led to importing ice from Singapore. Ice cream was then an upper-class treat, but over time ice cream became more widely available and the product was improved by replacing coconut water with coconut milk.

There were two types of ice cream in Thailand. First, ice cream in the palace was made of coconut juice with roasted tamarind on top. Second, ice cream for the public was coconut ice cream with the scent of the Nommaeo flower with a slight sweet taste. The ice cream "tube" was born during the reign of Rama VII. Its ingredients were contained inside a zinc tube which was shaken until it solidified, then skewered stick to serve as a handle. It was sold by mobile vendors using dry ice and salt to keep the ice cream cold. Eventually, ice cream was manufactured and sold in small cups.[70]

According to the Bangkok Post, aitim tat (Thai: ; "cut ice cream"), was very popular 30 years ago (1986). It came in rectangular bars of various flavors, sliced into pieces by the vendor, who then inserted two wooden sticks into the pieces to use as holders. Aitim tat was made from milk, coconut milk, flour, sugar, and artificial flavour. The price was one or two baht, depending on the size.[69]

The Pop Company in the 1970s set up the first ice-cream manufacturing plant in Thailand. The company used a duck logo, resulting it the nickname aitim tra pet (Thai: ; "duck brand ice cream").[69] It was sold in front of Chaloemchai Theater. Its most popular offering was called "banana split", with three flavors of ice cream, chocolate, vanilla, and strawberry.[70]

Khrueang duem (Thai: ; lit. "beverages")

Other alcoholic beverages from Thailand include Mekhong whisky and Sang Som. Several brands of beer are brewed in Thailand, the two biggest brands are Singha and Chang.

Certain insects are also eaten in Thailand, especially in Isan and in the north. Many markets in Thailand feature stalls which sell deep-fried grasshoppers, crickets (ching rit), bee larvae, silkworm (non mai), ant eggs (khai mot) and termites. The culinary creativity even extends to naming: one tasty larva, which is also known under the name "bamboo worm" (non mai phai, Omphisa fuscidentalis),[71] is colloquially called "express train" (rot duan) due to its appearance.

Most of the insects taste fairly bland when deep-fried, somewhat like popcorn and prawns. But when deep-fried together with kaffir lime leaves, chilies and garlic, the insects become an excellent snack to go with a drink. In contrast to the bland taste of most of these insects, the maeng da or maelong da na (Lethocerus indicus) has been described as having a very penetrating taste, similar to that of a very ripe gorgonzola cheese. This giant water bug is famously used in a chili dip called nam phrik maeng da. Some insects, such as tadpoles, ant eggs and silk worms, are also eaten boiled in a soup in Isan, or used in egg dishes in northern Thailand.[72]

The quality and choice of street food in Thailand is world-renowned. Bangkok is often mentioned as one of the best street food cities in the world, and even called the street food capital of the world.[73][74] The website VirtualTourist says:"Few places in the world, if any, are as synonymous with street food as Thailand. For the variety of locations and abundance of options, we selected Bangkok, Thailand, as our number one spot for street food. Bangkok is notable for both its variety of offerings and the city's abundance of street hawkers."[75]

There is scarcely a Thai dish that is not sold by a street vendor or at a market somewhere in Thailand. Some specialize in only one or two dishes, others offer a complete menu that rival that of restaurants. Some sell only pre-cooked foods, others make food to order. The foods that are made to order, tend to be dishes that can be quickly prepared: quick stir fries with rice, such as kaphrao mu (spicy basil-fried minced pork)[76] or phat khana (stir fried gailan), and quick curries such as pladuk phat phet (catfish fried with red curry paste).

Noodles are a popular street food item as they are mainly eaten as a single dish. Chinese-style noodle soups, fried noodles, and fermented Thai rice noodles (khanom chin), served with a choice of different Thai curries, are popular. Nearly everywhere in Thailand you will see som tam (green papaya salad) and sticky rice sold at stalls and roadside shops. This is popularly eaten together with grilled chicken; but if the shop doesn't sell any themselves, someone else nearby will. In most cities and towns there will be stalls selling sweet roti, a thin, flat fried dough envelop, with fillings such as banana, egg, and chocolate. The roti is similar to the Malay roti canai and Singaporean roti prata, and the stalls are often operated by Thai Muslims. Sweets snacks, collectively called khanom, such as tako (coconut cream jelly), khanom man (coconut cassava cake), and khanom wun (flavored jellies), can be seen displayed on large trays in glass covered push-carts. Other sweets, such as khanom bueang and khanom khrok (somewhat similar to Dutch poffertjes), are made to order.

In the evenings, mobile street stalls, often only a scooter with a side car, drive by and temporarily set up shop outside bars in Thailand, selling kap klaem ("drinking food"). Popular kap klaem dishes sold by mobile vendors are grilled items such as sun-dried squid, meats on skewers, or grilled sour sausages, and deep-fried snacks such as fried insects or fried sausages. Peeled and sliced fruits are also sold from street carts, laid out on a bed of crushed ice to preserve their freshness. Salapao, steamed buns filled with meat or sweet beans and the Thai version of the Chinese steamed baozi, are also commonly sold by mobile vendors.

Food markets in Thailand, large open air halls with permanent stalls, tend to operate as a collection of street stalls, each vendor with their own set of tables and providing (limited) service, although some resemble the regular food courts at shopping malls and large supermarkets, with service counters and the communal use of tables. Food courts and food markets offer many of the same foods as street stalls, both pre-cooked as well as made to order. Night food markets, in the form of a collection of street stalls and mobile vendors, spring up in parking lots, along busy streets, and at temple fairs and local festivals in the evenings, when the temperatures are more agreeable and people have finished work.

The dishes sold at wet markets in Thailand tend to be offered pre-cooked. Many people go there, and also to street vendors, to buy food for at work, or to take back home. It is a common sight to see Thais carrying whole communal meals consisting of several dishes, cooked rice, sweets, and fruit, all neatly packaged in plastic bags and foam food containers, to be shared with colleagues at work or at home with friends and family. Due to the fact that many dishes are similar to those that people would cook at home, it is a good place to find regional, and seasonal, foods.

Although the Vegetarian Festival is celebrated each year by a portion of Thailand's population, and many restaurants in Thailand will offer vegetarian food during this festival period, pure vegetarian food is usually difficult to find in normal restaurants and eateries in Thailand. All traditionally made Thai curries, for instance, contain shrimp paste, and fish sauce is used as salt in many Thai dishes. At shops and restaurants that specifically cater for vegetarians, substitutes for these ingredients are used. Meat dishes are also commonly part of the alms offered to Buddhist monks in Thailand as vegetarianism is not considered obligatory in Theravada Buddhism; but having an animal killed specifically to feed Buddhist monks is prohibited.[77][78]

In most towns and cities, traditional Buddhist vegetarian fare, without any meat or seafood products of any kind and also excluding certain strong tasting vegetables and spices, is sold at specialized vegetarian restaurants which can be recognized by a yellow sign with in Thai script the word che (Thai: ) or ahan che (Thai: ) written on it in red. These restaurants serve what can be regarded as vegan food. Many Indian restaurants of the sizable Thai-Indian community will also have vegetarian dishes on offer, due to the fact that vegetarianism is held as an ideal by many followers of the Hindu faith. Indian vegetarian cuisine can incorporate dairy products and honey. Due to the increased demand for vegetarian food from foreign tourists, many hotels, guesthouses and restaurants that cater to them, will now also have vegetarian versions of Thai dishes on their menu. Pescatarians would have very few problems with Thai cuisine due to the abundance of Thai dishes which only contain fish and seafood as their source of animal protein.[79][80][81][82][83]

Originally, it referred to the food that was cooked or prepared by people living in the palace. Thai royal cuisine has become very well known from the Rattanakosin Era onwards.

Typically, Thai royal cuisine has basic characteristics that are close to the basic food prepared by general people. However, Thai royal cuisine focuses on the freshness of seasonal products. Other than that, it is crucial that the way in which Thai royal food is cooked, should be complex and delicate.

La Loubre, an envoy from France during the reign of King Narai the Great, recorded that the food at the court was generally similar to villager food. Ways that make Thai Royal cuisine different food was the beautiful presentation. For example, they served fish and chicken with the bones removed, and the vegetables were served in bite-sized portions. In addition, if beef is used, it should be tenderloin only.

There are many types of Thai royal cuisine such as ranchuan curry, nam phrik long rue, matsaman curry, rice in jasmine-flavored iced water or khao chae, spicy salad, fruit, and carved vegetable.

Thai royal cuisine is regarded as one of the cultural symbols that represents the exquisite refinement of the Thai court.

Thai cuisine only became well-known worldwide from the 1960s onwards, when Thailand became a destination for international tourism and American troops arrived in large numbers during the Vietnam War period. The number of Thai restaurants went up from four in 1970s London to between two and three hundred in less than 25 years.[84] The earliest attested Thai restaurant in the United States, "Chada Thai", opened their doors in 1959 Denver, Colorado. It was run by the former newspaper publisher Lai-iad (Lily) Chittivej. The oldest Thai restaurant in London, "The Bangkok Restaurant", was opened in 1967 by Mr and Mrs Bunnag, a former Thai diplomat and his wife, in South Kensington.[85]

The global popularity of Thai cuisine is seen as an important factor in promoting tourism to Thailand, and also increase exports of Thailand's agricultural sector. In June 2009, the Tourism Authority of Thailand organised a conference to discuss these matters at the Queen Sirikit National Convention Centre in Bangkok. TAT Governor Seree Wangpaichitr: "This conference was long overdue. The promotion of Thai cuisine is one of our major niche-market targets. Our figures show that visitors spent 38.8 billion baht on eating and drinking last year, up 16% over 1997."[86]

The Thaksin administration of Thailand (2001-2006) launched the "Kitchen of the World" campaign in 2003 to promote Thai cuisine internationally, with a yearly budget of 500 million baht. It provided loans and training for restaurateurs seeking to establish Thai restaurants overseas; established the "Thai Select" certification program which encouraged the use of ingredients imported from Thailand; and promoted integration between Thai investors, Thai Airways, and the Tourism Authority of Thailand with Thai restaurants overseas.[87]

One survey held in 2003 by the Kellogg School of Management and Sasin Institute showed that Thai cuisine ranked fourth when people were asked to name an ethnic cuisine, after Italian, French, and Chinese cuisine. When asked "what is your favourite cuisine?", Thailand's cuisine came in at sixth place, behind the three aforementioned cuisines, and Indian and Japanese cuisine.[84]

In the list of the "World's 50 most delicious foods", compiled by CNN in 2011, som tam stands at place 46, nam tok mu at 19, tom yam kung at 8, and massaman curry stands on first place as most delicious food in the world.[88] In a reader's poll held a few months later by CNN, mu nam tok came in at 36, Thai fried rice at 24, green curry at 19, massaman curry at 10, and Thai som tam, pad Thai, and tom yam kung at six, five, and four.[89]

In 2012, the British Restaurant Magazine, included "Nahm Bangkok" of chef David Thompson in its yearly list of The World's 50 Best Restaurants.[90]

Thai chefs of the Thailand Culinary Academy took second place in the Gourmet Team Challenge (Practical) of the FHC China International Culinary Arts Competition 14 in Shanghai, China on 1416 November 2012. They won the IKA Culinary Olympic 2012 competition held in Erfurt, Germany between 510 October 2012, where they received four gold and one silver medal.[91]

In 2011, the James Beard Foundation Award for Best Chef in Northwestern United States, was presented to Andy Ricker of restaurant "Pok Pok" in Portland, Oregon, and for Best Chef in Southwestern United States to Saipin Chutima of restaurant "Lotus of Siam" in Winchester, Nevada.[92]

Three restaurants that specialize in Thai cuisine, but are owned by non-Thai chefs, have received Michelin stars:

Culinary tours of Thailand have gained popularity in recent years. Alongside other forms of tourism in Thailand, food tours have carved a niche for themselves. Many companies offer culinary and cooking tours of Thailand and many tourists visiting Thailand attend cooking courses offered by hotels, guesthouses and cooking schools.

Thailand's National Innovation Agency (NIA), a public organization under the Thai Ministry of Science and Technology, is spearheading a 30 million baht (US$1 million),[97] effort by the government to:

The agency has posted 11 "authentic" recipes for tom yum gung (nam sai), tom yum gung (nam khon), pad Thai, Massaman curry, kaeng kiew wan (green curry), kaeng lueng (southern Thai sour curry), Golek chicken sauce, khao soi, sai oui (northern Thai sausage), nam prik noom (green pepper chili paste), and nam prik aong (northern Thai chili paste).[99] These recipes were featured at a gala dinner promoting "Authentic Thai Food for the World", held at the Plaza Athne Hotel Bangkok on 24 August 2016 at which Thailand's minister of industry was the honored guest.[100] By 2020, Thai Delicious plans to post over 300 Thai food recipes.[101]

To determine authenticity, Thai researchers developed the "e-delicious machine", described as "...an intelligent robot that measures smell and taste in food ingredients through sensor technology in order to measure taste like a food critic."[102] The machine evaluates food by measuring its conductivity at different voltages. Readings from 10 sensors are combined to produce a chemical signature. Because the machine cannot judge taste, the food is compared with a standard derived from a database of popular preferences for each dish. For tom yam, the spicy soup flavored with Kaffir lime leaves and coriander, researchers posted notices at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, requesting 120 tasters. The tastersstudents, university staff, and area workerswere paid a few baht for their opinions. They were served 10 differently prepared soups and rated each one. The winning soup was declared the standard, and its chemical characteristics were programmed into the machine. When testing food, the machine returns a numerical score from one to 100. A score lower than 80 is deemed "not up to standard". The machine cost about US$100,000 to develop.[97] Restaurants that follow officially sanctioned recipes can affix a "Thai Delicious" logo to their menus.[97]

The Thai Delicious project has been criticized, the main rationale being that, "Standardisation is the enemy of Thai food."[103]

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Thai cuisine - Wikipedia

Written by admin

June 18th, 2017 at 9:46 pm

Posted in Thai Chi

Midnight Mania! MMA fighter wrecks traditional Tai Chi master in … – MMAmania.com

Posted: May 9, 2017 at 6:49 pm


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Welcome, to Midnight Mania! Tonight, weve got an old-school style vs. style clash in China -- traditional martial arts against MMA, knockouts from the weekend, one kid taking out five attackers, and much more.

It appears history is happening all over again in China. Via BloodyElbow.com, comes the unfolding story of Tai Chi (and other traditional Chinese martial arts) against the raw aggression and modern skill-set of MMA. Weve seen this story before.

This MMA fighter, Xu Xiaodong, had been talking all kinds of trash on the internet, claiming traditional martial arts were phony and fake. When the moment of truth came, he delivered on that thesis, brutally knocking out the Tai Chi master and then returning to social media site Weibo to talk more trash.

What makes this event extraordinary is the reaction Xu is garnering. He has been challenged by several traditional martial artists, despite the official stance of the Chinese Wushu association. Via Bloody Elbow:

Straits Times reports that He Xi Rui, head of the Wudang Tai Chi sect, was one of the first to respond to Xus challenge. Using Weibo Xu wrote, You are welcome to visit the Wudang Mountains to witness real martial arts.

Lu Xing, another Tai Chi master - this time from the Pushing Hands school in Sichuan Province - also accepted the challenge. Lu told Chengdu Business News that hell likely beat Xu thanks to his iron fist which took more than twenty years to develop.

Yi Long, who has been marketed as Chinas strongest Shaolin monk also took to Weibo to accept Xus challenge. A fight with Xu would be familiar territory for Yi, who has previously tested his Kung Fu style boxing against western and Thai-style fighters.

Yi Long in action:

Will the upstart MMA fighter Xu get the better of these respected martial artists? A lot rides on it. Not only did Xu himself offer 1.2 million yuan, about $174,000, to the person who can beat him, but an entrepreneur, Chen Sheng, has added his own money to the pile: 10 million yuan to the person who can beat Xu. This has all the makings of another Ip Man movie.

Derrick Lewis posted this insane video of a kid beating up five attackers using what looks like a deep well of Muay Thai training.

A post shared by Derrick Lewis (@thebeastufc) on May 8, 2017 at 2:12pm PDT

The weird animations are back.

Thats called shade, kids.

Nate Diaz and Dave Chappelle are the most random duo ever ... then again, the Diaz brothers are mixing it up with all the cool people nowadays.

How did they do this?

Conor McGregors girlfriend Dee Devlin had a baby and the little guy already has thousands of followers on his Instagram account.

Camacho Hell Boy is probably one of the toughest guys ever ! Illegal shots all kind of punches can't destroy him ! (FavelaKombat24) pic.twitter.com/zgCZCSJqfb

Stay woke, Maniacs!

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Midnight Mania! MMA fighter wrecks traditional Tai Chi master in ... - MMAmania.com

Written by simmons

May 9th, 2017 at 6:49 pm

Posted in Thai Chi

First Tai Chi festival draws the visitors – Biggleswade Today

Posted: at 6:49 pm


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18:00 Tuesday 09 May 2017

The first Shefford Tai Chi Festival was declared a success as it was held mark an important date in the calendar.

The last Saturday in April is designated by the World Health Organisation as World Tai Chi and Chi Kung Day, and this year the festival of Tai Chi and related arts was held at the Community Hall.

Ian Deavin, who runs Shefford Tai Chi, said: It was brilliant. As a first event we set our sights high but our expectations low - both were exceeded and we lost count of the number of visitors and were totally impressed by the enthusiasm of the demonstrations.

For those who dropped in on spec the atmosphere was warm and friendly with a multi-generation make up - so much a community event.

Tai Chi demos took the form of a short beginners class with lots of people joining in and some demonstrations. This was the sort of class that beginners can expect at classes in the afternoon on Mondays and Sunday evenings at the Community Hall.

Among a host of other demonstrations was Les Hummel with a taster class of yoga, David Sheppard with massage tasters, Wing Chun students under the direction of Master William Wong and Shash Gajjar with a pilates class.

Other Tai Chi classes were held and the Community Hall Taekwondo group, led by their fourth degree instructor Tom Delve, showed a high energy level with a routine that culminated in a brick breaking demo!

Judy Hammond took over with a class on Alexander Technique where she worked with individuals on their posture and then Ian gave a fast demo of the Chen style Broadsword form which was enjoyed by all.

Visitors watched Thai kickboxing by Master Miggy Marcantonio and a brilliant class of enthusiastic young students doing a 30-minute routine.

The final event was another Tai Chi class to finish off a very successful day.

Ian said: Many thanks to all who gave up their time to demonstrate and take classes - and of course to all our visitors.

Thank you to everybody who donated to charity for their tea/coffee and cakes - we collected over 73 which will be split between the World Wildlife Fund for Nature and a local charity for the homeless.

Visit http://www.sheffordtaichi.org

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First Tai Chi festival draws the visitors - Biggleswade Today

Written by grays

May 9th, 2017 at 6:49 pm

Posted in Thai Chi

Feature: Bad blood leading to throwback MMA in China? – Bloody … – Bloody Elbow

Posted: May 8, 2017 at 9:53 pm


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Last week a mixed martial artist took on a Tai Chi master in a crowded gym in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. But for the modern rash guard and the preponderance of smart phones that ringed the jigsawed mat room, you might have mistaken the contest for a Gracie Challenge or Vale Tudo bout; much like what signaled the dawning of mixed martial arts and eventually the UFC.

The competitors in this duel, which began as an online quarrel, were Xu Xiaodong and Wei Lei. Gilaine Ng of The Straits Times described Xu, who is director of the Beijing MMA Association, as a free-combat sportsman who taught himself MMA. Wei Lei was labeled a Tai Chi master and founder of Thunder-style Tai Chi by ejinsight (an offshoot of the Hong Kong Economical Journal).

As the fight began, Xu adopted a familiar MMA striking posture, whereas Wei raised both arms in a form akin to a praying mantis with feet so close together that they almost touched. After a second of surveying Weis pose, Xu went forward throwing bare-knuckle punches at the Tai Chi masters dome. As Wei back-peddled, Xu landed a thudding left to his jaw, dropping him instantly. With Wei dazed and on the ground, Xu stood over him and landed heavy strikes to the sides of the masters head until someone intervened and begged for mercy.

After brutally dispatching Wei, Xu told the onlookers that the fight wasnt competitive and that Tai Chi was a sham. According to ejinisght this prompted a number of Tai Chi masters to circle Xu and challenge him to a rematch. Reportedly, Xu ended up calling police after the Tai Chi proponents continued to argue with him for around half an hour. Later Xu turned to Chinese social media platform Weibo to double-down on his criticism of Tai Chi, stating that traditional martial arts styles were a lie and that they had no use in actual combat or self defense.

The Straits Times states that Xu also posted an open challenge to martial artists to prove him wrong. On Weibo, Xu stated that he would take on any and all traditional martial artists in a no rules contest (including kicks to the groin and eye pokes). Xu also said he would pay 1.2 million yuan ($174,000) to anyone who beats him.

In his social media storm Xu, also challenged two-time Olympic champion boxer Zou Shiming. Zous agents told the Straits Times that the 35-year-old flyweight would not be responding to the challenge, given that Zou and Xu are not on the same level. On Weibo, Xu also challenged one of the bodyguards of Jack Ma, the billionaire owner of e-commerce site Alibaba. Ma responded to Xus challenge on Weibo stating - according to ejinsight - that, Martial arts should be seen as something fun and that debate on various styles is pointless.

Also according to ejinsight, Xus comments on traditional martial arts has enraged Chinese wulin (a collective term for the Chinese martial arts community). The wulin is reported to be angered by Xus arrogance and his debasing of the revered practice of Tai Chi.

Wei also made comments after fight, stating that the only reason he lost to Xu was because he was showing mercy and refraining from using his internal strength. Wei reportedly said he feared Xu would be killed, had he used his full array of skills.

The Chinese Wushu Association, which promotes many martial arts in China and beyond, has condemned the fight between Xu and Wei, claiming it went against the principles of martial arts. Despite their condemnation, a number of traditional martial artists are eager to accept Xus challenge.

Straits Times reports that He Xi Rui, head of the Wudang Tai Chi sect, was one of the first to respond to Xus challenge. Using Weibo Xu wrote, You are welcome to visit the Wudang Mountains to witness real martial arts.

Lu Xing, another Tai Chi master - this time from the Pushing Hands school in Sichuan Province - also accepted the challenge. Lu told Chengdu Business News that hell likely beat Xu thanks to his iron fist which took more than twenty years to develop.

Yi Long, who has been marketed as Chinas strongest Shaolin monk also took to Weibo to accept Xus challenge. A fight with Xu would be familiar territory for Yi, who has previously tested his Kung Fu style boxing against western and Thai-style fighters.

Despite being billed as a Shaolin monk, a spokesperson from the Shaolin Temple stated in 2010 that Yi was not a monk from their order.

South China Morning Post reports that Li Shangxian, another Shaolin-style boxing practitioner, and Wang Zhanhai, a Tai Chi master, have also accepted Xus challenge. SCMP also reported that Chen Sheng, an entrepreneur who founded the drinks company Tiandi No. 1, was also getting in on the action by offering 10 million yuan ($1.4 million) to anyone who can defeat Xu.

With interest in Xus challenge to traditional martial artists gaining mainstream attention in China, it seems just a matter of time before more fights that pit MMA versus Tai Chi (and maybe kung fu) will make it to the internet. This, along with the most talked about fight on the planet being between a UFC champion and an undefeated boxer, could mean the era of style-versus-style match-making (aka freakshow fights) might not be dead after all.

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Feature: Bad blood leading to throwback MMA in China? - Bloody ... - Bloody Elbow

Written by simmons

May 8th, 2017 at 9:53 pm

Posted in Thai Chi


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