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This breakthrough could unlock the true power of quantum –

Posted: December 17, 2020 at 3:51 am

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There are three kinds of light, says Carmen Palacios-Berraquero, the CEO and co-founder of Nu Quantum a quantum photonics company based in Cambridge. Chaotic light is the stuff we encounter on a daily basis street lamps and light bulbs. Coherent light covers things with structure, like lasers which were first built in 1960, and have had a revolutionary impact on everything from surgery to home entertainment.

Palacios-Berraquero hopes that the third category, single-photon sources, could have an equally transformative effect. At Nu Quantum, she is working on technologies that can emit and detect single photons the smallest possible units of light. Photonic quantum technologies are about manipulating information processing, communicating and securing information encoded in single particles of light, she says. That allows you to do different things more powerful calculations, or better security.

Single photons cant be eavesdropped on or tampered with without the sender and recipient finding out. And they can be used to take advantage of quantum properties such as entanglement to enable more powerful computing and cryptography.

But building them is a really difficult technical challenge. There are only a handful of companies around the world no more than six, says Palacios-Berraquero that can reliably and controllably either emit or detect single photons. Nu Quantum is hoping to do both.

The company was spun out of research at Cambridge Universitys Cavendish Lab. Palacios-Berraquero had studied physics as an undergraduate and been drawn to the beauty of the interactions between light and matter. During her PhD, she developed a new technique for producing single-photon emitters and adapted it to work on ultra-thin crystals of hexagonal boron nitride a tiny defect in the crystal traps an electron, which then gives off photons.

She began the process of patenting it, and feeling disillusioned with academia started exploring potential commercialisation opportunities for her single-photon emitters. At around the same time, she was introduced to Matthew Applegate, another Cavendish researcher who had developed a way of detecting single photons. What was already a solid business idea with some investment became a portfolio approach, in which I had invented a single photon source, and Matthew had invented a single-photon detector, she says.

Nu Quantum has won 3.6m in government grants, and has just started working with BT, Airbus and other partners to test potential uses for its components. In September 2020 it closed a 2.1m seed round which will help fuel rapid growth and a move into a state of the art photonics lab in Cambridge.

The first product set for launch in 2022 will be a quantum random number generator, which will take advantage of the quantum nature of single photons to generate truly random numbers, based on an algorithm developed by Applegate, Nu Quantum co-founder and CTO. There are potential applications for video games, gambling, cloud security and communication where random numbers are used to generate the keys that scramble encrypted messages. The technology could also play a role in distributing those keys Nu Quantum is working with BT on a pilot that will generate, emit and detect quantum keys and make telecoms more secure. We are aspiring to be much more than the sum of the parts, says Palacios-Berraquero. The aspiration is something much bigger.

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This breakthrough could unlock the true power of quantum -

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ASC20-21 Student Supercomputer Challenge Kickoff: Quantum Computing Simulations, AI Language Exam and Pulsar Searching with FAST – Business Wire

Posted: November 28, 2020 at 4:58 pm

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BEIJING--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The preliminary round of the 2020-2021 ASC Student Supercomputer Challenge (ASC20-21) officially kicked off on November 16, 2020. More than 300 university teams from five continents registered to participate in this competition. Over the next two months, they will be challenged in several cutting-edge applications of Supercomputing and AI. The 20 teams that eventually make out of the preliminaries will participate in the finals from May 8 to 12, 2021 at Southern University of Science and Technology in Shenzhen, China. During the finals, they will compete for various awards including the Champion, Silver Prize, Highest LINPACK, and e- Prize.

Among the registered participants for ASC20-21 are three prior champion teams: the SC19/SC20 champion team of Tsinghua University, the ISC20 champion team of University of Science and Technology of China, and the ASC19 champion of National Tsing Hua University. Other power competitors include teams from University of Washington (USA), University of Warsaw (Poland), Ural Federal University (Russia), Monash University (Australia), EAFIT University (Columbia) and so much more.

For the tasks of this preliminary round of merged ASC20 and ASC21, the organizing committee has retained the quantum computing simulation and language exam tasks from the ASC20, and added a new fascinating, cutting-edge task in astronomy -- searching for pulsars.

Pulsars are fast-spinning neutron stars, and remnants of collapsed super stars. Pulsars feature a high density and strong magnetic field. By observing and studying the extreme physic of pulsars, the scientists can delve into the mysterious space around black holes and detect the gravitational waves triggered from the intense merge of super massive black holes in distant galaxies. Because of the unique nature of pulsars, the Nobel Prize in physics has been awarded twice for pulsar-related discoveries. Using radio telescopes over the previous decades, astronomers have discovered nearly 3,000 pulsars with 700 being discovered by PRESTO, the open-source pulsar search and analysis software. In ASC20-21, the participants are asked to use PRESTO from its official website, and the observational data from Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST), the worlds largest single-dish radio telescope located in Guizhou, China, operated by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Participating teams should achieve the applications maximum parallel acceleration, while searching for a pulsar in the FAST observational data loaded in the computer cluster they build. Practically the teams will need to understand the pulsar search process, complete the search task, analyze the code, and optimize the PRESTO application execution, by minimizing the computing time and resources.

The quantum computing simulation task will require each participating team to use the QuEST (Quantum Exact Simulation Toolkit) running on computer cluster to simulate 30 qubits in two cases: quantum random circuits (random.c), and quantum fast Fourier transform circuits (GHZ_QFT.c). Quantum simulations provides a reliable platform for studying of quantum algorithms, which are particularly important because quantum computers are not practically available yet in the industry.

The Language Exam task will require all participating teams to train AI models on an English Cloze Test dataset, striving to achieve the highest "test scores". The dataset covers multiple levels of English language tests used in China.

This years ASC training camp will be held on November 30 to help the participating teams from all around the world prepare for the competition. HPC and AI experts from Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peng Cheng Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of High-end Server & Storage Technology will introduce in details the competition rules, computer cluster build and optimization, and provide guidance.

About ASC

The ASC Student Supercomputer Challenge is the worlds largest student supercomputer competition, sponsored and organized by Asia Supercomputer Community in China and supported by Asian, European, and American experts and institutions. The main objectives of ASC are to encourage exchange and training of young supercomputing talent from different countries, improve supercomputing applications and R&D capacity, boost the development of supercomputing, and promote technical and industrial innovation. The first ASC Student Supercomputer Challenge was held in 2012 and since has attracted nearly 10,000 undergraduates from all over the world. Learn more ASC at

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ASC20-21 Student Supercomputer Challenge Kickoff: Quantum Computing Simulations, AI Language Exam and Pulsar Searching with FAST - Business Wire

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November 28th, 2020 at 4:58 pm

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Imperfections Lower the Simulation Cost of Quantum Computers – Physics

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Jordi Tura

November 23, 2020• Physics 13, 183

Classical computers can efficiently simulate the behavior of quantum computers if the quantum computer is imperfect enough.

With a few quantum bits, an ideal quantum computer can process vast amounts of information in a coordinated way, making it significantly more powerful than a classical counterpart. This predicted power increase will be great for users but is bad for physicists trying to simulate on a classical computer how an ideal quantum computer will behave. Now, a trio of researchers has shown that they can substantially reduce the resources needed to do these simulations if the quantum computer is imperfect [1]. The arXiv version of the trios paper is one of the most Scited papers of 2020 and the result generated quite a stir when it first appeared back in FebruaryI overheard it being enthusiastically discussed at the Quantum Optics Conference in Obergurgl, Austria, at the end of that month, back when we could still attend conferences in person.

In 2019, Google claimed to have achieved the quantum computing milestone known as quantum advantage, publishing results showing that their quantum computer Sycamore had performed a calculation that was essentially impossible for a classical one [2]. More specifically, Google claimed that they had completed a three-minute quantum computationwhich involved generating random numbers with Sycamores 53 qubitsthat would take thousands of years on a state-of-the-art classical supercomputer, such as IBMs Summit. IBM quickly countered the claim, arguing that more efficient memory storage would reduce the task time on a classical computer to a couple of days [3]. The claims and counterclaims sparked an industry clash and an intense debate among supporters in the two camps.

Resolving the disparity between these estimates is one of the goals of the new work by Yiqing Zhou, of the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, and her two colleagues [1]. In their study, they focused on algorithms for classically replicating imperfect quantum computers, which are also known as NISQ (noisy intermediate-scale quantum) devices [4]. Todays state-of-the-art quantum computersincluding Sycamoreare NISQ devices. The algorithms the team used are based on so-called tensor network methods, specifically matrix product states (MPS), which are good for simulating noise and so are naturally suited for studying NISQ devices. MPS methods approximate low-entangled quantum states with simpler structures, so they provide a data-compression-like protocol that can make it less computationally expensive to classically simulate imperfect quantum computers (see Viewpoint: Pushing Tensor Networks to the Limit).

Zhou and colleagues first consider a random 1D quantum circuit made of neighboring, interleaved two-qubit gates and single-qubit random unitary operations. The two-qubit gates are either Controlled-NOT gates or Controlled-Z (CZ) gates, which create entanglement. They ran their algorithm for NISQ circuits containing different numbers of qubits, N, and different depths, Da parameter that relates to the number of gates the circuit executes (Fig. 1). They also varied a parameter in the MPS algorithm. is the so-called bond dimension of the MPS and essentially controls how well the MPS capture entanglement between qubits.

The trio demonstrate that they can exactly simulate any imperfect quantum circuit if D and N are small enough and is set to a value within reach of a classical computer. They can do that because shallow quantum circuits can only create a small amount of entanglement, which is fully captured by a moderate . However, as D increases, the team finds that cannot capture all the entanglement. That means that they cannot exactly simulate the system, and errors start to accumulate. The team describes this mismatch between the quantum circuit and their classical simulations using a parameter that they call the two-qubit gate fidelity fn. They find that the fidelity of their simulations slowly drops, bottoming out at an asymptotic value f as D increases. This qualitative behavior persists for different values of N and . Also, while their algorithm does not explicitly account for all the error and decoherence mechanisms in real quantum computers, they show that it does produce quantum states of the same quality (perfection) as the experimental ones.

In light of Googles quantum advantage claims, Zhou and colleagues also apply their algorithm to 2D quantum systemsSycamore is built on a 2D chip. MPS are specifically designed for use in 1D systems, but the team uses well-known techniques to extend their algorithm to small 2D ones. They use their algorithm to simulate an N=54, D=20 circuit, roughly matching the parameters of Sycamore (Sycamore has 54 qubits but one is unusable because of a defect). They replace Googles more entangling iSWAP gates with less entangling CZ gates, which allow them to classically simulate the system up to the same fidelity as reported in Ref. [2] with a single laptop. The simulation cost should increase quadratically for iSWAP-gate circuits, and although the team proposes a method for performing such simulations, they have not yet carried them out because of the large computational cost it entails.

How do these results relate to the quantum advantage claims by Google? As they stand, they do not weaken or refute claimswith just a few more qubits, and an increase in D or f, the next generation of NISQ devices will certainly be much harder to simulate. The results also indicate that the teams algorithm only works if the quantum computer is sufficiently imperfectif it is almost perfect, their algorithm provides no speed up advantage. Finally, the results provide numerical insight into the values of N, D, f, and for which random quantum circuits are confined to a tiny corner of the exponentially large Hilbert space. These values give insight into how to quantify the capabilities of a quantum computer to generate entanglement as a function of f, for example.

So, whats next? One natural question is, Can the approach here be transferred to efficiently simulate other aspects of quantum computing, such as quantum error correction? The circuits the trio considered are essentially random, whereas quantum error correction circuits are more ordered by design [5]. That means that updates to the new algorithm are needed to study such systems. Despite this limitation, the future looks promising for the efficient simulation of imperfect quantum devices [6, 7].

Jordi Tura is an assistant professor at the Lorentz Institute of the University of Leiden, Netherlands. He also leads the institutes Applied Quantum Algorithms group. Tura obtained his B.Sc. degrees in mathematics and telecommunications and his M.Sc. in applied mathematics from the Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain. His Ph.D. was awarded by the Institute of Photonic Sciences, Spain. During his postdoctoral stay at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Germany, Tura started working in the field of quantum information processing for near-term quantum devices.

A nanopatterned magnetic structure features an unprecedently strong coupling between lattice vibrations and quantized spin waves, which could lead to novel ways of manipulating quantum information. Read More

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Quantum Computing Market : Analysis and In-depth Study on Size Trends, and Regional Forecast – Cheshire Media

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Kenneth Research has published a detailed report on Quantum Computing Market which has been categorized by market size, growth indicators and encompasses detailed market analysis on macro trends and region-wise growth in North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Middle East & Africa region. The report also includes the challenges that are affecting the growth of the industry and offers strategic evaluation that is required to boost the growth of the market over the period of 2019-2026.

The report covers the forecast and analysis of the Quantum Computing Market on a global and regional level. The study provides historical data from 2015 to 2019 along with a forecast from 2019-2026 based on revenue (USD Million). In 2018, the worldwide GDP stood at USD 84,740.3 Billion as compared to the GDP of USD 80,144.5 Billion in 2017, marked a growth of 5.73% in 2018 over previous year according to the data quoted by International Monetary Fund. This is likely to impel the growth of Quantum Computing Marketover the period 2019-2026.

The Final Report will cover the impact analysis of COVID-19 on this industry.

Request To Download Sample of This Strategic Report: The report provides a unique tool for evaluating the Market, highlighting opportunities, and supporting strategic and tactical decision-making. This report recognizes that in this rapidly-evolving and competitive environment, up-to-date marketing information is essential to monitor performance and make critical decisions for growth and profitability. It provides information on trends and developments, and focuses on markets capacities and on the changing structure of the Quantum Computing.

The quantum annealing category held the largest share under the technology segment in 2019. This is attributed to successful overcoming of physical challenges to develop this technology and further incorporated in bigger systems. The BFSI category held the largest share in the quantum computing market in 2019. This is owing to the fact that the industry is growing positively across the globe, and large banks are focusing on investing in this potential technology that can enable them to streamline their business processes, along with unbeatable levels of security

Automotive to lead quantum computing market for consulting solutions during forecast period Among the end-user industries considered, space and defense is the largest contributor to the overall quantum computing market, and it is expected to account for a maximum share of the market in 2019. The need for secure communications and data transfer, with the demand in faster data operations, is expected to boost the demand for quantum computing consulting solutions in this industry. The market for the automotive industry is expected to grow at the highest CAGR

Quantum computing can best be defined as the use of the attributes and principles of quantum mechanics to perform calculations and solve problems. The global market for quantum computing is being driven largely by the desire to increase the capability of modeling and simulating complex data, improve the efficiency or optimization of systems or processes, and solve problems with more precision. A quantum system can process and analyze all data simultaneously and then return the best solution, along with thousands of close alternatives all within microseconds, according to a new report from Tractica.

2018 was a growth year for the market, as businesses from the BFSI sector showed tremendous interest in quantum computing and the trend is likely to continue in 2019 and beyond. Moreover, the public sector presents significant growth opportunity for the market. In the forthcoming years, the application opportunities for quantum computing is expected to expand further, which may lead to a higher commercial interest in the technology.

Market Segmentation The report focuses on the following end-user sectors and applications for quantum computing: By Based on offering *Consulting solutions *Systems

By End-user sectors *Government. *Academic. *Healthcare. *Military. *Geology/energy. *Information technology. *Transport/logistics. *Finance/economics. *Meteorology. *Chemicals.

By Applications *Basic research. *Quantum simulation. *Optimization problems. *Sampling.

By Regional Ananlysis North America *U.S. *Canada

Europe *Germany *UK *France *Italy *Spain *Belgium *Russia *Netherlands *Rest of Europe

Asia-Pacific *China *India *Japan *Korea *Singapore *Malaysia *Indonesia *Thailand *Philippines *Rest of Asia-Pacific

Latin America *Brazil *Mexico *Argentina *Rest of LATAM

Middle East & Africa *UAE *Saudi Arabia *South Africa *Rest of MEA

The quantum computing market is highly competitive with high strategic stakes and product differentiation. Some of the key market players include International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation, Telstra Corporation Limited, IonQ Inc., Silicon Quantum Computing, Huawei Investment & Holding Co. Ltd., Alphabet Inc., Rigetti & Co Inc., Microsoft Corporation, D-Wave Systems Inc., Zapata Computing Inc., and Intel Corporation.

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Competitive Analysis: The Quantum Computing Market report examines competitive scenario by analyzing key players in the market. The company profiling of leading market players is included in this report with Porters five forces analysis and Value Chain analysis. Further, the strategies exercised by the companies for expansion of business through mergers, acquisitions, and other business development measures are discussed in the report. The financial parameters which are assessed include the sales, profits and the overall revenue generated by the key players of Market.

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Global Quantum Computing Market 2020 Recovering From Covid-19 Outbreak | Know About Brand Players: D-Wave Systems, 1QB Information Technologies,…

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InForGrowth has added Latest Research Report on Quantum Computing Market 2020 Future Growth Opportunities, Development Trends, and Forecast 2026. The Global Quantum Computing Market market report cover an overview of the segments and sub-segmentations including the product types, applications, companies & regions. This report describes overall Quantum Computing Market size by analyzing historical data and future projections.

The report features unique and relevant factors that are likely to have a significant impact on the Quantum Computing market during the forecast period. This report also includes the COVID-19 pandemic impact analysis on the Quantum Computing market. This report includes a detailed and considerable amount of information, which will help new providers in the most comprehensive manner for better understanding. The report elaborates the historical and current trends molding the growth of the Quantum Computing market

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Market Segmentation:

The segmentation of the Quantum Computing market has been offered on the basis of product type, application, Major Key Players and region. Every segment has been analyzed in detail, and data pertaining to the growth of each segment has been included in the analysis

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Based on type, report split into

Based on Application Quantum Computing market is segmented into

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Impact of COVID-19: Quantum Computing Market report analyses the impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) on the Quantum Computing industry. Since the COVID-19 virus outbreak in December 2019, the disease has spread to almost 180+ countries around the globe with the World Health Organization declaring it a public health emergency. The global impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are already starting to be felt, and will significantly affect the Quantum Computing market in 2020

COVID-19 can affect the global economy in 3 main ways: by directly affecting production and demand, by creating supply chain and market disturbance, and by its financial impact on firms and financial markets.

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The research study on the Quantum Computingmarket offers inclusive insights about the growth of the market in the most comprehensible manner for a better understanding of users. Insights offered in the Quantum Computingmarket report answer some of the most prominent questions that assist the stakeholders in measuring all the emerging possibilities.

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Is the blockchain vulnerable to hacking by quantum computers? –

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Theres a lingering fear among crypto investors that their bitcoin might get swooped by a hacker.

Thats not very likely, but its not impossible either, particularly once quantum computing gets into the wrong hands. Last year Googles quantum computer called Sycamore was given a puzzle that would take even the most powerful supercomputers 10 000 years to solve and completed it in just 200 seconds, according to Nature magazine.

That kind of processing power unleashed on the bitcoin blockchain which is a heavily encrypted ledger of all bitcoin transactions is a cause for concern.


The encryption technology used by the bitcoin blockchain has proven itself robust enough to withstand any and all attacks. Thats because of its brilliant design, and ongoing improvements by an ever-growing community of open-source cryptographers and developers.

A report by research group Gartner (Hype Cycle for Blockchain Technologies, 2020) suggests blockchain researchers are already anticipating possible attacks by quantum computers that are perhaps five to 10 years away from commercial availability. Its a subject called Postquantum blockchain which is a form of blockchain technology using quantum-resistant cryptographic algorithms that can resist attack by future quantum computers.

The good news is that quantum-resistant algorithms are likely to remain several steps ahead of the hackers, but its an issue that is drawing considerable attention in the financial, security and blockchain communities.

Postquantum cryptography is not a threat just yet, but crypto exchanges are going to have to deploy quantum-resistant technologies in the next few years, before quantum computers become generally available.

Phishing is probably a bigger threat

In truth, youre far more likely to be hit by a phishing scam, where identity thieves use emails, text messages and fake websites to get you to divulge sensitive personal information such as bank account or crypto exchange passwords.

As a user, you should be using LastPass or similar software to generate complex passwords, along with two-factor authentication (requiring the input of a time-sensitive code before you can access your crypto exchange account).Most good exchanges are enabled for this level of security.

There are many sad stories of bitcoin theft, but these are usually as a result of weak security on the part of the bitcoin holder, much like leaving your wallet on the front seat of your car while you pop into the shop for a minute.

Like all tech breakthroughs, quantum computing can be used for good and bad.

On the plus side, it will vastly speed drug discovery, molecular modelling and code breaking. It will also be a gift to hackers and online thieves, which is why financial services companies are going to have to invest in defensive technologies to keep customer information and assets safe.

Most crypto exchanges invest substantial amounts in security. The vast majority of crypto assets (about 97%) are stored in encrypted, geographically-separated, offline storage. These cannot be hacked.

The risk emerges when bitcoin are moved from offline (or cold storage) to online, such as when a client is about to transact.

But even here, the level of security is usually robust. A further level of protection is the insurance of all bitcoin that are stored in online systems. They also have systems in place to prevent any employee from making off with clients assets, requiring multiple keys before a bitcoin transaction is authorised.

There have been hacks on crypto exchanges in the past (though not on the blockchain itself), and millions of dollars in crypto assets stolen. In more recent years, this has become less common as exchanges moved to beef up their security systems.

In 2014 Mt.Gox, at the time responsible for about 70% of all bitcoin transactions in the world, suffered an attack when roughly 800000 bitcoin, valued at $460 million, were stolen. In 2018, Japan-based crypto exchange Coincheck was hit with a $534 million fraud impacting 260000 investors.

As the value of bitcoin and other crypto assets increases, the incentive for hackers rises proportionately, which is why problems such as quantum-enabled thievery are already being addressed.

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Here’s Why the Quantum World Is Just So Strange – Walter Bradley Center for Natural and Artificial Intelligence

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In this weeks podcast, Enrique Blair on quantum computing, Walter Bradley Center director Robert J. Marks talks with fellow computer engineer Enrique Blair about why Quantum mechanics pioneer Niels Bohr said, If quantum mechanics hasnt profoundly shocked you, you havent understood it yet. Lets look at some of the reasons he said that:

The Show Notes and transcript follow.

Enrique Blair: Its really quite different from our daily experience. Quantum mechanics really is a description of the world at the microscopic scale. And its really weird, because there are things that initially we thought maybe were particles but then we learned that they have wave-like behaviors. And there are other things that we thought were waves and then we discovered they have particle-like behaviors.

But thats hardly the strangest part. The strangest part is that a quantum particle does not actually have a position until we measure it, according to the generally accepted Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics.

Robert J. Marks: Whats the Copenhagen interpretation?

Enrique Blair (pictured): Its that the quantum mechanical wave function describes measurement outcomes in probabilities. You cant predict with certainty the outcome of a measurement. Which is really shocking, because in the classical world, if you have a particle and you know its position and its velocity, you can predict where its going to be in the next second or minute or hour. Now in quantum mechanics, the really weird thing is, we say that a particle doesnt even have a position until you measure its position.

Robert J. Marks: It doesnt exist?

Enrique Blair: Not that it doesnt exist, but its position is not defined.

Dr. Marks compared quantum mechanics (QM) to one of the characters in a 1999 film, Mystery Men, featuring inept amateur superheroes, including one who says, Im invisible as long as nobodys looking at me. With QM, thats not a joke. The quantum particle doesnt have a position until we measure it. But how did we discover this? The story goes back to the early 1800s when British physicist Thomas Young (17731829) did a famous experiment with a card held up to a small window

Enrique Blair: Youngs double-slit experiment goes all the way back to 1801, where Young shot light at a couple of slits and then the light passing through the slits would show up on a screen behind them.

So light behaves like a wave, with interference patterns. But what happens when we try doing the same thing with a single particle of lighta photon? Thats something we can do nowadays.

Enrique Blair: We can reduce a beam of light so that its single photon. One photon is emitted at a time, and were shooting it at our double slit again.

What happens when each particle of light goes through these slits? Well, each particle splats up against this screen, and so you can know where the photon hits. But if you do this over a long period of time, the interference pattern shows up again. You have particles hitting the screen, so we see the particle behavior. But we also see the interference pattern which suggests that okay, weve got some wave interference going on here.

So the only way to explain both of these at the same time is that each photon, which is an indivisible packet of light, has to go through both slits at the same time and interfere with itself, and then the buildup of many, many photons gives you that interference pattern.

Robert J. Marks: A particle was hypothesized to go through both slits?

Enrique Blair: Yes, and thats the mind-blowing ramification of this thing.

Robert J. Marks: How do we decide which slit the particles go through? Suppose we went down and we tried to measure? We put out one photon and we put it through the double slit. Weve tried to measure which slit it went through. If its a particle, it can only go through one, right?

Enrique Blair: Right. That introduces this concept of measurement. Like you said, which slit does it go through? Now the interesting thing is, if we know which slit it goes through maybe we set up a detector and we say, Hey, did it go through Slit One or Slit Two? we detect that, we measure it and the interference pattern goes away because now its gone through one slit only, not both.

Robert J. Marks: Just by the act of observation, we are restricting that photon to go through one slit or the other. Observation really kind of screws things up.

Enrique Blair: Thats right. This is one of the things that is hard to understand about quantum mechanics. In the classical world that we deal with every day, we can just observe something and we dont have to interact with it. So we can measure somethings position or its velocity without altering it. But in quantum mechanics, observation or measurement inherently includes interacting with that thing, that particle.

Again, youve got this photon that goes through both slits, but then you measure it and it actually ends up going through oneonce you measure it.

Robert J. Marks: This reminds me again of Invisible Boy in Mystery Men. The photon goes through one of the two slits while youre looking at it. Unless you look away. Then it goes through both slits.

Enrique Blair: Right. Very tricky, those photons.

Next: How scientists have learned to work with the quantum world

Note: The illustration of the double-slit experiment in physics is courtesy NekoJaNekoJa and Johannes Kalliauer (CC BY-SA 4.0).

You may also enjoy: A materialist gives up on determinism. Evolutionary biologist Jerry Coyne undercuts his own argument against free will by admitting that quantum phenomena are real (Michael Egnor)

Quantum randomness gives nature free will. Whether or not quantum randomness explains how our brains work, it may help us create unbreakable encryption codes (Robert J. Marks)

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Here's Why the Quantum World Is Just So Strange - Walter Bradley Center for Natural and Artificial Intelligence

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Cracking the Secrets of an Emerging Branch of Physics: Exotic Properties to Power Real-World Applications – SciTechDaily

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In a new realm of materials, PhD student Thanh Nguyen uses neutrons to hunt for exotic properties that could power real-world applications.

Thanh Nguyen is in the habit of breaking down barriers. Take languages, for instance: Nguyen, a third-year doctoral candidate in nuclear science and engineering (NSE), wanted to connect with other people and cultures for his work and social life, he says, so he learned Vietnamese, French, German, and Russian, and is now taking an MIT course in Mandarin. But this drive to push past obstacles really comes to the fore in his research, where Nguyen is trying to crack the secrets of a new and burgeoning branch of physics.

My dissertation focuses on neutron scattering on topological semimetals, which were only experimentally discovered in 2015, he says. They have very special properties, but because they are so novel, theres a lot thats unknown, and neutrons offer a unique perspective to probe their properties at a new level of clarity.

Topological materials dont fit neatly into conventional categories of substances found in everyday life. They were first materialized in the 1980s, but only became practical in the mid-2000s with deepened understanding of topology, which concerns itself with geometric objects whose properties remain the same even when the objects undergo extreme deformation. Researchers experimentally discovered topological materials even more recently, using the tools of quantum physics.

Within this domain, topological semimetals, which share qualities of both metals and semiconductors, are of special interest to Nguyen.They offer high levels of thermal and electric conductivity, and inherent robustness, which makes them very promising for applications in microelectronics, energy conversions, and quantum computing, he says.

Intrigued by the possibilities that might emerge from such unconventional physics, Nguyen is pursuing two related but distinct areas of research: On the one hand, Im trying to identify and then synthesize new, robust topological semimetals, and on the other, I want to detect fundamental new physics with neutrons and further design new devices.

My goal is to create programmable artificial structured topological materials, which can directly be applied as a quantum computer, says Thanh Nguyen. Credit: Gretchen Ertl

Reaching these goals over the next few years might seem a tall order. But at MIT, Nguyen has seized every opportunity to master the specialized techniques required for conducting large-scale experiments with topological materials, and getting results. Guided by his advisor,Mingda Li, the Norman C Rasmussen Assistant Professor and director of theQuantum Matter Groupwithin NSE, Nguyen was able to dive into significant research even before he set foot on campus.

The summer, before I joined the group, Mingda sent me on a trip to Argonne National Laboratory for a very fun experiment that used synchrotron X-ray scattering to characterize topological materials, recalls Nguyen. Learning the techniques got me fascinated in the field, and I started to see my future.

During his first two years of graduate school, he participated in four studies, serving as a lead author in three journal papers. In one notable project,described earlier this yearinPhysical Review Letters, Nguyen and fellow Quantum Matter Group researchers demonstrated, through experiments conducted at three national laboratories, unexpected phenomena involving the way electrons move through a topological semimetal, tantalum phosphide (TaP).

These materials inherently withstand perturbations such as heat and disorders, and can conduct electricity with a level of robustness, says Nguyen. With robust properties like this, certain materials can conductivity electricity better than best metals, and in some circumstances superconductors which is an improvement over current generation materials.

This discovery opens the door to topological quantum computing. Current quantum computing systems, where the elemental units of calculation are qubits that perform superfast calculations, require superconducting materials that only function in extremely cold conditions. Fluctuations in heat can throw one of these systems out of whack.

The properties inherent to materials such as TaP could form the basis of future qubits, says Nguyen. He envisions synthesizing TaP and other topological semimetals a process involving the delicate cultivation of these crystalline structures and then characterizing their structural and excitational properties with the help of neutron and X-ray beam technology, which probe these materials at the atomic level. This would enable him to identify and deploy the right materials for specific applications.

My goal is to create programmable artificial structured topological materials, which can directly be applied as a quantum computer, says Nguyen. With infinitely better heat management, these quantum computing systems and devices could prove to be incredibly energy efficient.

Energy efficiency and its benefits have long concerned Nguyen. A native of Montreal, Quebec, with an aptitude for math and physics and a concern for climate change, he devoted his final year of high school to environmental studies. I worked on a Montreal initiative to reduce heat islands in the city by creating more urban parks, he says. Climate change mattered to me, and I wanted to make an impact.

At McGill University, he majored in physics. I became fascinated by problems in the field, but I also felt I could eventually apply what I learned to fulfill my goals of protecting the environment, he says.

In both classes and research, Nguyen immersed himself in different domains of physics. He worked for two years in a high-energy physics lab making detectors for neutrinos, part of a much larger collaboration seeking to verify the Standard Model. In the fall of his senior year at McGill, Nguyens interest gravitated toward condensed matter studies. I really enjoyed the interplay between physics and chemistry in this area, and especially liked exploring questions in superconductivity, which seemed to have many important applications, he says. That spring, seeking to add useful skills to his research repertoire, he worked at Ontarios Chalk River Laboratories, where he learned to characterize materials using neutron spectroscopes and other tools.

These academic and practical experiences served to propel Nguyen toward his current course of graduate study. Mingda Li proposed an interesting research plan, and although I didnt know much about topological materials, I knew they had recently been discovered, and I was excited to enter the field, he says.

Nguyen has mapped out the remaining years of his doctoral program, and they will prove demanding. Topological semimetals are difficult to work with, he says. We dont yet know the optimal conditions for synthesizing them, and we need to make these crystals, which are micrometers in scale, in quantities large enough to permit testing.

With the right materials in hand, he hopes to develop a qubit structure that isnt so vulnerable to perturbations, quickly advancing the field of quantum computing so that calculations that now take years might require just minutes or seconds, he says. Vastly higher computational speeds could have enormous impacts on problems like climate, or health, or finance that have important ramifications for society. If his research on topological materials benefits the planet or improves how people live, says Nguyen, I would be totally happy.

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Cracking the Secrets of an Emerging Branch of Physics: Exotic Properties to Power Real-World Applications - SciTechDaily

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November 28th, 2020 at 4:57 pm

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Quantum Computing Market Detailed Analysis of Current and Future Industry Figures 2020-2026 | Leading Players StationQ- Microsoft, Google, 1QB…

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The Quantum Computing Market research report provides an in-depth overview of the industry including market segmentation by components, deployment mode, end-user, application, and geography. Analysis of the global market with special focus on high growth application in each vertical and fast-growing application market segments. It includes detailed competitive landscape with identification of the key players with respect to each type of market, in-depth market share analysis with individual revenue, market shares, and top players rankings. Impact analysis of the market dynamics with factors currently driving and restraining the growth of the market, along with their impact in the short, medium, and long-term landscapes. Competitive intelligence from the company profiles, key player strategies, game-changing developments such as product launches and acquisitions.

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Part 09: Customer Landscape

Part 10: Regional Landscape

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Quantum Computing Market Detailed Analysis of Current and Future Industry Figures 2020-2026 | Leading Players StationQ- Microsoft, Google, 1QB...

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November 16th, 2020 at 7:53 pm

Posted in Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing in the CloudCan It Live Up to the Hype? – Electronic Design

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What youll learn:

Quantum computing has earned its place on the Gartner hype cycle. Pundits have claimed that it will take over and change everything forever. The reality will likely be somewhat less dramatic, although its fair to say that quantum computers could spell the end for conventional cryptography. Clearly, this has implications for technologies like blockchain, which are slated to support financial systems of the future.

While the Bitcoin system, for example, is calculated to keep classical mining computers busy until 2140, brute-force decryption using a quantum computer could theoretically mine every token almost instantaneously. More powerful digital ledger technologies based on quantum cryptography could level the playing field.

All of this presupposes that quantum computing will become usable and affordable on a widespread scale. As things stand, this certainly seems achievable. Serious computing players, including IBM, Honeywell, Google, and Microsoft, as well as newer specialist startups, all have active programs that are putting quantum computing in the cloud right now and inviting engagement from the wider computing community. Introduction packs and development kits are available to help new users get started.

Democratizing Access

These are important moves that will almost certainly drive further advancement as users come up with more diverse and demanding workloads and figure out ways of handling them using quantum technology. Equally important is the anticipated democratizing effect of widespread cloud access, which should bring more people from a wider variety of backgrounds into contact with quantum to understand it, use it, and influence its ongoing development.

Although its here, quantum computing remains at a very experimental stage. In the future, commercial cloud services could provide affordable access in the same way that scientific or banking organizations can today rent cloud AI applications to do complex workloads that are billed according to the number of computer cycles used.

Hospitals, for example, are taking advantage of genome sequencing apps hosted on AI accelerators in hyperscale data centers to identify genetic disorders in newborn babies. The process costs just a few dollars and the results are back within minutes, enabling timely and potentially life-saving intervention by clinicians.

Quantum computing as a service could further transform healthcare as well as deeply affect many other fields such as materials science. Simulating a caffeine molecule, for example, is incredibly difficult to do with a classical computer, demanding the equivalent of over 100 years of processing time. A quantum computer can complete the task in seconds. Other applications that could benefit include climate analysis, transportation planning, bioinformatics, financial services, encryption, and codebreaking.

A Real Technology Roadmap

For all its power, quantum computing isnt here to kill off classical computing or turn the entire world upside down. Because quantum bits (qubits) can be in both states, 0 and 1, unlike conventional binary bits that are in one state or another, they can store exponentially more information. However, their state when measured is determined by probability, so quantum is only suited to certain types of algorithms. Others can be handled better by classical computers.

In addition, building and running a quantum computer is incredibly difficult and complex. On top of that, the challenges intensify as we try to increase the number of qubits in the system. As with any computer, more bits corresponds to more processing power, so increasing the number of bits is a key objective for quantum-computer architects.

Keeping the system stable, with a low error rate, for longer periods is another objective. One way to achieve this is by cryogenically cooling the equipment to near absolute zero to eliminate thermal noise. Furthermore, extremely pure and clean RF sources are needed. Im excited that, at Rohde & Schwarz, we are working with our academic partners to apply our ultra-low-noise R&S SGS100A RF sources (Fig. 1) to help increase qubit count and stability.

1. Extremely pure and clean RF sources like the R&S SGS100A are needed in quantum-computing applications.

The RF source is one of the most important building blocks as it determines the amount of errors that must be corrected in the process of reading out the quantum-computation results. A cleaner RF signal increases quantum-system stability, reducing errors due to quantum decoherence that would result in information loss.

Besides the low phase and amplitude noise requirements, multichannel solutions are essential to scale up the quantum-computing system. Moreover, as we start to consider scalability, a small form factor of the signal sources becomes even more relevant. Were combining our RF expertise with the software and system know-how of our partners in pursuit of a complete solution.

Equipment Needs

In addition, scientists are constantly looking for new material to be applied in quantum-computing chips and need equipment to help them accurately determine the exact properties. Then, once the new quantum chip is manufactured, its resonance frequencies must be measured to ensure that no undesired resonances exist. Rohde & Schwarz has developed high-performance vector network analyzers (Fig. 2) for both tasks and can assist in the debugging of the quantum-computing system itself.

2. VNAs such as the R&S ZNA help determine properties of material used in quantum computing.

Our partners are relying on us to provide various other test-and-measurement solutions to help them increase the performance and capabilities of quantum computers. The IQ mixing is a crucial part of a quantum computer, for example, and our spectrum analyzers help to characterize and calibrate the IQ mixers and suppress undesired sidebands. Moreover, R&S high-speed oscilloscopes (Fig. 3) help enable precise temporal synchronization of signals in the time domain, which is needed to set up and debug quantum-computing systems.

3. High-speed oscilloscopes, for example, the R&S RTP, can be used to set up and debug quantum-computing systems.

As we work with our partners in the quantum world to improve our products for a better solution fit, at the same time were learning how to apply that knowledge to other products in our portfolio. In turn, this helps to deliver even better performing solutions.

While cloud access will enable more companies and research institutes to take part in the quantum revolution, bringing this technology into the everyday requires a lot more work on user friendliness. That involves moving away from the temperature restrictions, stabilizing quantum computers with a high number of qubits, and all for a competitive price.

Already, however, we can see that quantum has the potential to profoundly change everything it touches. No hype is needed.

Sebastian Richter is Vice President of Market Segment ICR (Industry, Components, Research & Universities) at Rohde & Schwarz.

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Quantum Computing in the CloudCan It Live Up to the Hype? - Electronic Design

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November 16th, 2020 at 7:53 pm

Posted in Quantum Computing

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