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Scientists Have Shown There’s No ‘Butterfly Effect’ in the Quantum World – VICE

Posted: August 23, 2020 at 10:57 pm

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Of all the reasons for wanting to time-travelsaving someone from a fatal mistake, exploring ancient civilizations, gathering evidence about unsolved crimesrecovering lost information isnt the most exciting. But even if a quest to recover the file that didnt auto-save doesn't sound like a Hollywood movie plot, weve all had moments when weve longed to go back in time for exactly that reason.

Theories of time and time-travel have highlighted an apparent stumbling block: time travel requires changing the past, even simply by adding in the time traveller. The problem, according to chaos theory, is that the smallest of changes can cause radical consequences in the future. In this conception of time travel, it wouldnt be advisable to recover your unsaved document since this act would have huge knock-on effects on everything else.

New research in quantum physics from Los Alamos National Laboratory has shown that the so-called butterfly effect can be overcome in the quantum realm in order to unscramble lost information by essentially reversing time.

In a paper published in July, researchers Bin Yan and Nikolai Sinitsyn write that a thought experiment in unscrambling information with time-reversing operations would be expected to lead to the same butterfly effect as the one in the famous Ray Bradburys story A Sound of Thunder In that short story, a time traveler steps on an insect in the deep past and returns to find the modern world completely altered, giving rise to the idea we refer to as the butterfly effect.

In contrast," they wrote, "our result shows that by the end of a similar protocol the local information is essentially restored.

"The primary focus of this work is not 'time travel'physicists do not have an answer yet to tell whether it is possible and how to do time travel in the real world, Yan clarified.

[But] since our protocol involves a 'forward' and a 'backward' evolution of the qubits, achieved by changing the orders of quantum gates in the circuit, it has a nice interpretation in terms of Ray Bradbury's story for the butterfly effect. So, it is an accurate and useful way to understand our results."

What is the butterfly effect?

The world does not behave in a neat, ordered way. If it did, identical events would always produce the same patterns of knock-on effects, and the future would be entirely predictable, or deterministic. Chaos theory claims that the opposite: total randomness is not our situation either. We exist somewhere in the middle, in a world that often appears random but in fact obeys rules and patterns.

Patterns within chaos are hidden because they are highly sensitive to tiny changes, which means similar but not identical situations can produce wildly different outcomes. Another way of putting it is that in a chaotic world, effects can be totally out of proportion to their causes, like the metaphor of a flap of butterfly wings causing a tornado on the other side of the world. On the tornado side of the world, the storm would seem random, because the connection between the butterfly-flap and the tornado is too complex to be apparent. While this butterfly effect is the classic poetic metaphor illustrating chaos theory, chaotic dynamics also play out in real-world contexts, including population growth in the Canadian lynx species and the rotation of Plutos moons.

Another feature of chaos is that, even though the rules are deterministic, the future is not predictable in the long-term. Since chaos is so sensitive to small variations, there are near-infinite ways the rules could play out and we would need to know an impossible amount of detail about the present and past to map out exactly how the world will evolve.

Similarly, you cant reverse-engineer some piece of information about the past simply by knowing the current and even future situations; time-travel doesnt help retrieve past information, because even moving backwards in time, the chaotic system is still in play and will produce unpredictable effects.

Information scrambling

Unscrambling information which has previously been scrambled is not straightforward in a chaotic system. Yan and Sinitsyns key discovery is that it is nonetheless possible in quantum computing to get enough information via time-reversal which will then enable information unscrambling.

According to Yan, the fact that the butterfly effect does not occur in quantum realms is not a surprising result, but demonstrating information unscrambling is both novel and important.

In quantum information theory, scrambling occurs when the information encoded in each quantum particle is split up and redistributed across multiple quantum particles in the same quantum system. The scrambling is not random, since information redistribution relies on quantum entanglement, which means that the states of some quantum particles are dependent on each other. Although the scrambled result is seemingly chaotic, the information can be put back together, at least in principle, using the entangled relationships.

Importantly, information scrambling is not the same as information loss. To continue the earlier analogy: information loss occurs when a document is permanently deleted from your computer. For information scrambling, imagine cutting and pasting tiny bits of one computer file into every other file on your machine. Each file now contains a mess of information snippets. You could reconstruct the original files, if you remembered exactly which bits were cut and pasted, and did the entire process in reverse.

Physicists are interested in information scrambling for two main reasons. On the theoretical side, its been proposed as a way to explain what happens to information sucked into a black hole. On the more applied side, it could be an important mechanism for quantum computers to store and hide information, and could produce fast and efficient quantum simulators, which are used already to perform complex experiments including new drug discovery.

Yan and Sinitsyn fall into the second camp, and construct what they call a practically accessible scenario to test unscrambling by time-travel. This scenario is still hypothetical, but explores the mathematics of the actual quantum processor used by Google to demonstrate quantum supremacy in 2019.

Yan says: Another potential application is to use this effect to protect information. A random evolution on a quantum circuit can make the qubit robust to perturbations. One may further exploit the discovered effect to design protocols in quantum cryptography.

The set-up

In Yan and Sinitsyn's quantum thought experiment, Alice and Bob are the protagonists. Alice is using a simplified version of Googles quantum processor to hide just one part of the information stored on the computer (called the central qubit) by scrambling this qubits state across all the other qubits (called the qubit bath). Bob is cast as the intruder, much like a malicious computer hacker. He wants the important information originally stored on the central qubit, now distributed across entangled quantum particles in the bath.

Unfortunately, Bobs hack, while successful in getting the information he wanted, leaves a trail of destruction.

If her processor has already scrambled the information, Alice is sure that Bob cannot get anything useful, the authors write. However, Bobs measurement changes the state of the central qubit and also destroys all quantum correlations between this qubit and the rest of the system.

Bob's method of information theft has altered the computer state so that Alice can also no longer access the hidden information. In this case, the damage occurs because quantum states contain all possible values they could have, with assigned probabilities of each value, but these possibilities (represented by the wave function) collapse down to just one value when a measurement is taken. Quantum computing relies on unmeasured quantum systems to store even more information in multiple possible states, and Bobs intrusion has totally altered the computer system.

Reversing time

Theoretically, the behaviour of a quantum system moving backwards in time can be demonstrated mathematically using whats called a time-reversed evolution operator, which is exactly what Alice uses to de-scramble the information.

Her time-reversal is not actually time travel the way we understand it from science fiction, it is literally a reversal of times direction; the system evolves backwards following whatever dynamics are in play, rather than Alice herself revisiting an earlier time. If the butterfly effect held in the quantum world, then this backwards evolution would actually increase the damage Bob had caused, and Alice would only be able to retrieve the hidden information if she knew exactly what that damage was and could correct her calculations accordingly.

Luckily for Alice, quantum systems behave totally differently to non-quantum (classical or semiclassical) chaotic systems. What Yan and Sinitsyn found is that she can apply her time-reversal operation and end up at an "earlier" state which will not be identical with the initial system she set up, but it will also not have increased the damage which occurred later. Alice can then reconstruct her initial system using a method of quantum unscrambling called quantum state tomography.

What this means is that a quantum system can effectively heal and even recover information that was scrambled in the past, without the chaos of the butterfly effect.

Classical chaotic evolution magnifies any state damage exponentially quickly, which is known as the butterfly effect, explain Yan and Sinitsyn. The quantum evolution, however, is

linear. This explains why, in our case, the uncontrolled damage to the state is not magnified by the subsequent complex evolution. Moreover, the fact that Bobs measurement does not damage the useful information follows from the property of entanglement correlations in the scrambled state.

Hypothetical though this scenario may be, the result already has a practical use: verifying whether a quantum system has achieved quantum supremacy. Quantum processors can simulate time-reversal in a way that classical computers cannot, which could provide the next important test for the quantum race between Google and IBM.

So, while time travel is still not in the cards, the quantum world continues to mess with our classical conception of how the world evolves in time, and pushes the limits of computing information.

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Scientists Have Shown There's No 'Butterfly Effect' in the Quantum World - VICE

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August 23rd, 2020 at 10:57 pm

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Quantum Information Processing Market 2020 | Know the Latest COVID19 Impact Analysis And Strategies of Key Players: 1QB Information Technologies,…

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August 23rd, 2020 at 10:57 pm

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Doctor Strange might want to trade his Time Stone for time crystals that are doing some otherworldly things – SYFY WIRE

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So maybe Doctor Strange wore the Eye of Agamotto, embedded with the Time Stone which was his own portable time machine (raddest necklace ever), but there is something just as bizarre outside the Marvel Universe that actually exists in this universe.

Time crystals were once just a phantom of a theory. While they cant take you back or zoom you forward in time like the Time Stone, their atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern just like a regular crystalline structure. The difference is that time crystals follow a pattern that repeats in time instead of space. Their repeating motions in time happen on their own with no external influence, and could seriously upgrade quantum computers or the atomic clocks behind your GPS. This new phase of matter was confirmed to be real several years ago, and now two of them that were created in a lab were observed touching for the first time ever.

What it comes to practical work, the rule of thumb is that everything always goes wrong in experiments, and then you just have to try again. So very rarely do you experience a moment when things just suddenly fall in place. It is more like an exhausting endurance test to wipe out a range of problems and mistakes, rather than one distinct moment of brilliance, physicist Samuli Autti, who led a study recently published in Nature Materials, told SYFY WIRE about the breakthrough.

Going back in time for a moment, the existence of time crystals was first theorized by MIT theoretical physicist, mathematician and Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek in 2012. Flash forward four years later, and two teams of scientists were able to create them using completely different methods. Proof that creating time crystals were actually possible meant they had to be investigated further if they were ever actually going to be used for anything. Autti and his team froze the superfluid helium-3, a rare isotope of helium to -459.67 Fahrenheit. This is just one ten thousandth of a degree from absolute zero (the lowest possible temperature completely devoid of motion and heat). The deep freeze was necessary to achieve symmetry breaking, a property of regular crystals that only gets weirder when applied to time crystals.

Breaking symmetry only sounds like making symmetry vanish. What really comes out of this phenomenon is a lower symmetry. Liquids in their liquid state look exactly the same from every angle because the molecules in a liquid can move around freely in that liquid, but things change when that liquid freezes into ice and rearranges into a crystalline structure. It is not as symmetrical because the molecules in the crystal end up spaced apart at consistent intervals.

While it may sound ironic that symmetry breaks when a liquid transforms into a regular structure as opposed to an irregular structure, the consistency of that hard structure means it isnt going to be as symmetrical as the liquid because it cant just flow anywhere.

After freezing the helium-3, Autti and his team wrapped two coils of copper wire around the test tube. These were meant to pick up signals that would tell them about the rotation of the magnetic particles in the time crystals. Sure enough, two time crystals, which appeared more like clouds, emerged.

This spontaneous rotating motion is what essentially makes the clouds time crystals. The size of each signal tells you how many particles there are in each cloud. Therefore changes in the populations are seen as changes in the signal size. If the two clouds touch, they will exchange particles back and forth in a particular way, which we saw in the experiment, Autti said.

Time crystals could mean some unreal things for computing in the future. Quantum technology involves features of quantum physics that show quantum effects. For now, superconductors that are being tested for possible use in quantum computers behave similarly to time crystals. This flow of energy between superconductors, which can conduct without electrical resistance at extremely low temperatures, is called the Josephson effect. This is an infinite supercurrent that keeps on going without the need for any additional voltage. Time crystals that touch display this behavior through the exchange of magnons waves that behave like particles between them, and they dont even need an insulating barrier like superconductors do.

Time crystals are intrinsically very good at protecting their coherence. A basic requirement to enable quantum computing and technology is protecting coherence in the quantum system of interest, Autti said. Next to the Josephson effect, it also turns out that the underlying system of magnetic particles we used (magnon Bose-Einstein condensate) is very similar to a particular solid-state system where a magnon Bose condensate forms at room temperature. That is why one can potentially use these magnetic systems to build quantum devices that work even at room temperature.

What about leveling up your GPS? That starts with atomic clocks, and what time crystals have in common with clocks is repeating motion.

Time crystals are intrinsically good at maintaining the repeating motion that defines them. So in principle they also make for good clocks, because a clock is simply a phenomenon that systematically repeats in time, explained Autti, though he is hesitant to say that time crystals should only be looked at for overhauling atomic clocks when there is so much more to the phenomenon. At least as a thought experiment, this idea provides an illuminating emphasis of what is the essence of a time crystal.

Even Doctor Strange would probably have his mind blown.

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Doctor Strange might want to trade his Time Stone for time crystals that are doing some otherworldly things - SYFY WIRE

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August 23rd, 2020 at 10:57 pm

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Trump betting millions to lay the groundwork for quantum internet in the US – CNBC

Posted: April 28, 2020 at 2:44 am

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In the 1960s the U.S. government funded a series of experiments developing techniques to shuttle information from one computer to another. Devices in single labs sprouted connections, then neighboring labs linked up. Soon the network had blossomed between research institutions across the country, setting down the roots of what would become the internet and transforming forever how people use information. Now, 60 years later, the Department of Energy is aiming to do it again.

The Trump administration's 2021 budget request currently under consideration by Congress proposes slashing the overall funding for scientific research by nearly 10% but boosts spending on quantum information science by about 20%, to $237 million. Of that, the DOE has requested $25 million to accelerate the development of a quantum internet. Such a network would leverage the counterintuitive behavior of nature's particles to manipulate and share information in entirely new ways, with the potential to reinvent fields including cybersecurity and material science.

Whilethetraditional internet for general useisn't going anywhere, a quantum networkwouldoffer decisive advantages for certain applications: Researchers could use it to develop drugs and materials by simulating atomic behavior onnetworked quantum computers, for instance, and financial institutions and governments would benefit from next-level cybersecurity. Many countries are pursuing quantum research programs, and with the 2021 budget proposal, the Trumpadministration seeks to ramp up thateffort.

"That level of funding will enable us to begin to develop the groundwork for sophisticated, practical and high-impact quantum networks," says David Awschalom, a quantum engineer at the University of Chicago. "It's significant and extremely important."

A quantum internet will develop in fits and starts, much like the traditional internet did and continues to do. China has already realized an early application, quantum encryption, between certain cities, but fully quantum networks spanning entire countries will take decades, experts say. Building it willrequire re-engineering the quantum equivalent of routers, hard drives, and computers from the ground up foundational work already under way today.

Where the modern internet traffics in bits streaming between classical computers (a category that now includes smart phones, tablets, speakers and thermostats), a quantum internet would carry a fundamentally different unit of information known as the quantum bit, or qubit.

Bits all boil down to instances of nature's simplest eventsquestions with yes or no answers. Computer chips process cat videos by stopping some electric currents while letting others flow. Hard drives store documents by locking magnets in either the up or down position.

Qubits represent a different language altogether, one based on the behavior of atoms, electrons, and other particles, objects governed by the bizarre rules of quantum mechanics. These objects lead more fluid and uncertain lives than their strait-laced counterparts in classical computing. A hard drive magnet must always point up or down, for instance, but an electron's direction is unknowable until measured. More precisely, the electron behaves in such a way that describing its orientation requires a more complex concept known as superposition that goes beyond the straightforward labels of "up" or "down."

Quantum particles can also be yoked together in a relationship called entanglement, such as when two photons (light particles) shine from the same source. Pairs of entangled particles share an intimate bond akin to the relationship between the two faces of a coin when one face shows heads the other displays tails. Unlike a coin, however, entangled particles can travel far from each other and maintain their connection.

Quantum information science unites these and other phenomena, promising a novel, richer way to process information analogous to moving from 2-D to 3-D graphics, or learning to calculate with decimals instead of just whole numbers. Quantum devices fluent in nature's native tongue could, for instance, supercharge scientists' ability to design materials and drugs by emulating new atomic structures without having to test their properties in the lab. Entanglement, a delicate link destroyed by external tampering, could guarantee that connections between devices remain private.

But such miracles remain years to decades away. Both superposition and entanglement are fragile states most easily maintained at frigid temperatures in machines kept perfectly isolated from the chaos of the outside world. And as quantum computer scientists search for ways to extend their control over greater numbers of finicky particles, quantum internet researchers are developing the technologies required to link those collections of particles together.

The interior of a quantum computer prototype developed by IBM. While various groups race to build quantum computers, Department of Energy researchers seek ways to link them together.


Just as it did in the 1960s, the DOE is again sowing the seeds for a future network at its national labs. Beneath the suburbs of western Chicago lie 52 miles of optical fiber extending in two loops from Argonne National Laboratory. Early this year, Awschalom oversaw the system's first successful experiments. "We created entangled states of light," he says, "and tried to use that as a vehicle to test how entanglement works in the real world not in a lab going underneath the tollways of Illinois."

Daily temperature swings cause the wires to shrink by dozens of feet, for instance, requiring careful adjustment in the timing of the pulses to compensate. This summer the team plans to extend their network with another node, bringing the neighboring Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory into the quantum fold.

Similar experiments are under way on the East Coast, too, where researchers have sent entangled photons over fiber-optic cables connecting Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York with Stony Brook University, a distance of about 11 miles. Brookhaven scientists are also testing the wireless transmission of entangled photons over a similar distance through the air. While this technique requires fair weather, according to Kerstin Kleese van Dam, the director of Brookhaven's computational science initiative, it could someday complement networks of fiber-optic cables. "We just want to keep our options open," she says.

Such sending and receiving of entangled photons represent the equivalent of quantum routers, but next researchers need a quantum hard drive a way to save the information they're exchanging. "What we're on the cusp of doing," Kleese van Dam says, "is entangled memories over miles."

When photons carry information in from the network, quantum memory will store those qubits in the form of entangled atoms, much as current hard drives use flipped magnets to hold bits. Awschalom expects the Argonne and University of Chicago groups to have working quantum memories this summer, around the same time they expand their network to Fermilab, at which point it will span 100 miles.

But that's about as far as light can travel before growing too dim to read. Before they can grow their networks any larger, researchers will need to invent a quantum repeater a device that boosts an atrophied signal for another 100-mile journey. Classical internet repeaters just copy the information and send out a new pulse of light, but that process breaks entanglement (a feature that makes quantum communications secure from eavesdroppers). Instead, Awschalom says, researchers have come up with a scheme to amplify the quantum signal by shuffling it into other forms without ever reading it directly. "We have some prototype quantum repeaters currently running. They're not good enough," he says, "but we're learning a lot."

Department of Energy Under Secretary for Science Paul M. Dabbar (left) sends a pair of entangled photons along the quantum loop. Also shown are Argonne scientist David Awschalom (center) and Argonne Laboratory Director Paul Kearns.

Argonne National Laboratory

And if Congress approves the quantum information science line in the 2021 budget, researchers like Awschalom and Kleese van Dam will learn a lot more. Additional funding for their experiments could lay the foundations for someday extending their local links into a country-wide network. "There's a long-term vision to connect all the national labs, coast to coast," says Paul Dabbar, the DOE's Under Secretary for Science.

In some senses the U.S. trails other countries in quantum networking. China, for example, has completed a 1,200-mile backbone linking Beijing and Shanghai that banks and other companies are already using for nearly perfectly secure encryption. But the race for a fully featured quantum internet is more marathon than sprint, and China has passed only the first milestone. Kleese van Dam points out that without quantum repeaters, this network relies on a few dozen "trusted" nodes Achilles' heels that temporarily put the quantum magic on pause while the qubits are shoved through bit-based bottlenecks. She's holding out for truly secure end-to-end communication. "What we're planning to do goes way beyond what China is doing," she says.

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Researchers ultimately envision a whole quantum ecosystem of computers, memories, and repeaters all speaking the same language of superposition and entanglement, with nary a bit in sight. "It's like a big stew where everything has to be kept quantum mechanical," Awschalom says. "You don't want to go to the classical world at all."

After immediate applications such as unbreakable encryptions, he speculates that such a network could also lead to seismic sensors capable of logging the vibration of the planet at the atomic level, but says that the biggest consequences will likely be the ones no one sees coming. He compares the current state of the field to when electrical engineers developed the first transistors and initially used them to improve hearing aids, completely unaware that they were setting off down a path that would someday bring social media and video conferencing.

As researchers at Brookhaven, Argonne, and many other institutions tinker with the quantum equivalent of transistors, but they can't help but wonder what the quantum analog of video chat will be. "It's clear there's a lot of promise. It's going to move quickly," Awschalom says. "But the most exciting part is that we don't know exactly where it's going to go."

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Trump betting millions to lay the groundwork for quantum internet in the US - CNBC

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April 28th, 2020 at 2:44 am

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Announcing the IBM Quantum Challenge – Quantaneo, the Quantum Computing Source

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Today, we have 18 quantum systems and counting available to our clients and community. Over 200,000 users, including more than 100 IBM Q Network client partners, have joined us to conduct fundamental research on quantum information science, develop the applications of quantum computing in various industries, and educate the future quantum workforce. Additionally, 175 billion quantum circuits have been executed using our hardware, resulting in more than 200 publications by researchers around the world.

In addition to developing quantum hardware, we have also been driving the development of powerful open source quantum software. Qiskit, written primarily in Python, has grown to be a popular quantum computing software development kit with several novel features, many of which were contributed by dedicated Qiskitters.

Thank you to everyone who has joined us on this exciting journey building the largest and most diverse global quantum computing community.

The IBM Quantum Challenge As we approach the fourth anniversary of the IBM Quantum Experience, we invite you to celebrate with us by completing a challenge with four exercises. Whether you are already a member of the community, or this challenge is your first quantum experiment, these four exercises will improve your understanding of quantum circuits. We hope you also have fun as you put your skills to test.

The IBM Quantum Challenge begins at 9:00 a.m. US Eastern on May 4, and ends 8:59:59 a.m. US Eastern on May 8. To take the challenge, visit

In recognition of everyones participation, we are awarding digital badges and providing additional sponsorship to the Python Software Foundation.

Continued investment in quantum education Trying to explain quantum computing without resorting to incorrect analogies has always been a goal for our team. As a result, we have continuously invested in education, starting with opening access to quantum computers, and continuing to create tools that enable anyone to program them. Notably, we created the first interactive open source textbook in the field.

As developers program quantum computers, what they are really doing is building and running quantum circuits. To support your learning about quantum circuits:

Read the Qiskit textbook chapter where we define quantum circuits as we understand them today. Dive in to explore quantum computing principles and learn how to implement quantum algorithms on your own. Watch our newly launched livelectures called Circuit Sessions, or get started programming a quantum computer by watching Coding with Qiskit. Subscribe to the Qiskit YouTube channel to watch these two series and more. The future of quantum is in open source software and access to real quantum hardwarelets keep building together.

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Announcing the IBM Quantum Challenge - Quantaneo, the Quantum Computing Source

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April 28th, 2020 at 2:44 am

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Wiring the Quantum Computer of the Future: Researchers from Japan and Australia propose a novel 2D design – QS WOW News

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The basic units of a quantum computer can be rearranged in 2D to solve typical design and operation challenges. Efficient quantum computing is expected to enable advancements that are impossible with classical computers. A group of scientists from Tokyo University of Science, Japan, RIKEN Centre for Emergent Matter Science, Japan, and the University of Technology, Sydney have collaborated and proposed a novel two-dimensional design that can be constructed using existing integrated circuit technology. This design solves typical problems facing the current three-dimensional packaging for scaled-up quantum computers, bringing the future one step closer.

Quantum computing is increasingly becoming the focus of scientists in fields such as physics and chemistry, and industrialists in the pharmaceutical, airplane, and automobile industries. Globally, research labs at companies like Google and IBM are spending extensive resources on improving quantum computers, and with good reason. Quantum computers use the fundamentals of quantum mechanics to process significantly greater amounts of information much faster than classical computers. It is expected that when the error-corrected and fault-tolerant quantum computation is achieved, scientific and technological advancement will occur at an unprecedented scale.

But, building quantum computers for large-scale computation is proving to be a challenge in terms of their architecture. The basic units of a quantum computer are the quantum bits or qubits. These are typically atoms, ions, photons, subatomic particles such as electrons, or even larger elements that simultaneously exist in multiple states, making it possible to obtain several potential outcomes rapidly for large volumes of data. The theoretical requirement for quantum computers is that these are arranged in two-dimensional (2D) arrays, where each qubit is both coupled with its nearest neighbor and connected to the necessary external control lines and devices. When the number of qubits in an array is increased, it becomes difficult to reach qubits in the interior of the array from the edge. The need to solve this problem has so far resulted in complex three-dimensional (3D) wiring systems across multiple planes in which many wires intersect, making their construction a significant engineering challenge.

The team of scientists led by Prof Jaw-Shen Tsai has proposed a unique solution to this qubit accessibility problem by modifying the architecture of the qubit array. Here, we solve this problem and present a modified superconducting micro-architecture that does not require any 3D external line technology and reverts to a completely planar design, they say. This study has been published in the New Journal of Physics.

The scientists began with a qubit square lattice array and stretched out each column in the 2D plane. They then folded each successive column on top of each other, forming a dual one-dimensional array called a bi-linear array. This put all qubits on the edge and simplified the arrangement of the required wiring system. The system is also completely in 2D. In this new architecture, some of the inter-qubit wiringeach qubit is also connected to all adjacent qubits in an arraydoes overlap, but because these are the only overlaps in the wiring, simple local 3D systems such as airbridges at the point of overlap are enough and the system overall remains in 2D. As you can imagine, this simplifies its construction considerably.

The scientists evaluated the feasibility of this new arrangement through numerical and experimental evaluation in which they tested how much of a signal was retained before and after it passed through an airbridge. The results of both evaluations showed that it is possible to build and run this system using existing technology and without any 3D arrangement.

The scientists experiments also showed them that their architecture solves several problems that plague the 3D structures: they are difficult to construct, there is crosstalk or signal interference between waves transmitted across two wires, and the fragile quantum states of the qubits can degrade. The novel pseudo-2D design reduces the number of times wires cross each other, thereby reducing the crosstalk and consequently increasing the efficiency of the system.

At a time when large labs worldwide are attempting to find ways to build large-scale fault-tolerant quantum computers, the findings of this exciting new study indicate that such computers can be built using existing 2D integrated circuit technology. The quantum computer is an information device expected to far exceed the capabilities of modern computers, Prof Tsai states. The research journey in this direction has only begun with this study, and Prof Tsai concludes by saying, We are planning to construct a small-scale circuit to further examine and explore the possibility.

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Muquans and Pasqal partner to advance quantum computing – Quantaneo, the Quantum Computing Source

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This partnership is an opportunity to leverage a unique industrial and technological expertise for the design, integration and validation of advanced quantum solutions that has been applied for more than a decade to quantum gravimeters and atomic clocks. It will speed up the development of Pasqals processors and will bring them to an unprecedented maturity level.

Muquans will supply several key technological building blocks and a technical assistance to Pasqal, that will offer an advanced computing and simulation capability towards quantum advantage for real life applications.

We have the strong belief that the neutral atoms technology developed by Pasqal has a unique potential and this agreement is a wonderful opportunity for Muquans to participate on the great adventure of quantum computing. It will also help us find new opportunities for our technologies. We expect this activity to significantly grow in the coming years and this partnership will allow us to become a key stakeholder in the supply chain of quantum computers., Bruno Desruelle, CEO Muquans

Muquans laser solutions combine extreme performance, advanced functionalities and industrial reliability. When you develop the next generation of quantum computers, you need to rely on strong bases and build trust with your partners. Being able to embed this technology in our processors will be a key factor for our company to consolidate our competitive advantage and bring quantum processors to the market., Georges-Olivier Reymond, CEO Pasqal

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Muquans and Pasqal partner to advance quantum computing - Quantaneo, the Quantum Computing Source

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April 28th, 2020 at 2:44 am

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Deltec Bank, Bahamas – Quantum Computing Will bring Efficiency and Effectiveness and Cost Saving in Baking Sector –

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When you add AI and machine learning capabilities to the mix, we could potentially develop pre-warning systems that detect fraud before it even happens.

As online banking grows it is becoming a hot target for cybercriminals around the world as they become ever more adept at cracking bank security. Now, banks are looking into the technology behind quantum computing as a potential solution to this threat as well as its many other benefits. Currently, the technology is still in development but it is expected to take over from traditional computing in the next five to ten years.

What is quantum computing?

With quantum computing, the amount of processing power available is far larger than even the fastest silicon chips in existence today. Rather than using the traditional 1 and 0 method of binary computer processing, quantum computing uses qubits. Utilizing the theory of quantum superposition, these provide a way of processing 1s and 0s simultaneously, increasing the speed of the computer by several orders of magnitude.

For example, in October 2019, Google's 'Sycamore' quantum computer solved an equation in 200 seconds that would have taken a normal supercomputer 10,000 years to complete. This gives you an idea of the power that we are talking about.

So how does this help the banking sector?

1. Fraud Detection

Fraud is quickly becoming the biggest threat to online banking and data security. Customers need to feel confident that their money and their personal information is kept secure and with data leaks happening more frequently, this problem must be addressed.

Quantum computing offers significant benefits in the fight against fraud, offering enough computing power to automatically and instantly detect patterns that are commonly associated with fraudulent activity. When you add AI and machine learning capabilities to the mix, we could potentially develop pre-warning systems that detect fraud before it even happens.

2. Quantum Cryptography

Cryptography is an area of science that has recently gained popularity. The technology has proven incredibly useful in helping to secure the blockchain networks.

Quantum cryptography takes this security to an entirely new level, particularly when applied to financial data. It provides the ability to store data in a theoretical state of constant flux, making it near impossible for hackers to read or steal.

However, it could also be used to easily crack existing cryptographic security methods. Currently, the strongest 2048-bit encryption would take normal computer ages to break in to, whereas a quantum computer could do it in a matter of seconds.

3. Distributed Keys

Distributed key generation (DKG) is already being used by many online platforms for increased protection against data interception. Now, quantum technology provides a new system known as Measurement-Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution (MKI-QKD) which secures communications to a level that even quantum computers can't hack.

The technology is already being investigated by several financial institutions, notably major Dutch bank ABN-AMRO for their online and mobile banking applications.

4. Trading and Data

Artificial intelligence, machine learning, and big data are all new technologies that are currently being tested enthusiastically by banks. However, one of the biggest pain points with these technologies is the amount of processing power required.

According to Deltec Bank - "Quantum computing could quickly accelerate this research past the testing level and provide instant solutions to many problems currently facing the banking world. Time-consuming activities like mortgage and loan approvals would become instant and high-frequency trading could become automated and near error-proof."

Banks that are looking into quantum

Many major banks around the world are already investigating the potential benefits of quantum computing.

UK banking giant Barclays has worked in conjunction with IBM to develop a proof-of-concept that utilizes quantum computing to settle transactions. When applied to trading, the concept could successfully complete massive amounts of complex trades in seconds.

Major US bank JPMorgan has also expressed an interest in the technology for its security and data processing abilities. The bank has tasked its senior engineer with creating a 'quantum culture' in the business and meeting fortnightly with scientists to explore developments in the field.

Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria (BBVA) is working with the Spanish National Research Council (CISC) to explore various applications of quantum computing. The team believes the technology could reduce risk and improve customer service.

Quantum Computing though still in an early stage will have a significant impact on the Banking sectors in years to come.

Disclaimer: The author of this text, Robin Trehan, has an Undergraduate degree in economics, Masters in international business and finance and MBA in electronic business. Trehan is Senior VP at Deltec International The views, thoughts, and opinions expressed in this text are solely the views of the author, and not necessarily reflecting the views of Deltec International Group, its subsidiaries and/or employees.

About Deltec Bank

Headquartered in The Bahamas, Deltec is an independent financial services group that delivers bespoke solutions to meet clients' unique needs. The Deltec group of companies includes Deltec Bank & Trust Limited, Deltec Fund Services Limited, and Deltec Investment Advisers Limited, Deltec Securities Ltd. and Long Cay Captive Management.

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Company Name: Deltec International Group

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Phone: 242 302 4100

Country: Bahamas




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Deltec Bank, Bahamas - Quantum Computing Will bring Efficiency and Effectiveness and Cost Saving in Baking Sector -

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New way of developing topological superconductivity discovered –

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A pencil shaped semiconductor, measuring only a few hundred nanometers in diameter, is what researches from the Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, at University of Copenhagen, in collaboration with Microsoft Quantum researchers, have used to uncover a new route to topological superconductivity and Majorana zero modes in a study recently published in Science.

The new route that the researchers discovered uses the phase winding around the circumference of a cylindrical superconductor surrounding a semiconductor, an approach they call "a conceptual breakthrough".

"The result may provide a useful route toward the use of Majorana zero modes as a basis of protected qubits for quantum information. We do not know if these wires themselves will be useful, or if just the ideas will be useful," says Charles Marcus, Villum Kann Rasmussen Professor at the Niels Bohr Institute and Scientific Director of Microsoft Quantum Lab in Copenhagen.

"What we have found appears to be a much easier way of creating Majorana zero modes, where you can switch them on and off, and that can make a huge difference"; says postdoctoral research fellow, Saulius Vaitieknas, who was the lead experimentalist on the study.

The new research merges two already known ideas used in the world of quantum mechanics: Vortex-based topological superconductors and the one-dimensional topological superconductivity in nanowires.

"The significance of this result is that it unifies different approaches to understanding and creating topological superconductivity and Majorana zero modes", says professor Karsten Flensberg, Director of the Center for Quantum Devices.

Looking back in time, the findings can be described as an extension of a 50-year old piece of physics known as the Little-Parks effect. In the Little-Parks effect, a superconductor in the shape of a cylindrical shell adjusts to an external magnetic field, threading the cylinder by jumping to a "vortex state" where the quantum wavefunction around the cylinder carries a twist of its phase.

Charles M. Marcus, Saulius Vaitieknas, and Karsten Flensberg from the Niels Bohr Institute at the Microsoft Quantum Lab in Copenhagen.

What was needed was a special type of material that combined semiconductor nanowires and superconducting aluminum. Those materials were developed in the Center for Quantum Devices in the few years. The particular wires for this study were special in having the superconducting shell fully surround the semiconductor. These were grown by professor Peter Krogstrup, also at the Center for Quantum Devices and Scientific Director of the Microsoft Quantum Materials Lab in Lyngby.

The research is the result of the same basic scientific wondering that through history has led to many great discoveries.

"Our motivation to look at this in the first place was that it seemed interesting and we didn't know what would happen", says Charles Marcus about the experimental discovery, which was confirmed theoretically in the same publication. Nonetheless, the idea may indicate a path forward for quantum computing.

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Hot Qubits Could Deliver a Quantum Computing Breakthrough – Popular Mechanics

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Researchers in Australia have brought quantum computing up to a bewildering 1.5 Kelvin, which may not sound like much until you consider existing technologies require supercooling to almost absolute zero. These scientists say they can quantum compute in an environment 10 times warmer that costs millions less in expensive supercooling equipment.

In the most common form of quantum computing research, scientists use qubitsquantum bits, which are often a single atom of an element with a carefully controlled electronthat must be cooled, ideally, to absolute zero to achieve superconductivity. Absolute zero is impossible, but scientists can get very, very close, and theyre getting slightly even closer all the time.

Each new step costs more money, and often more lead time, for the supercooled tech to get down to temperature. At Sydneys University of New South Wales (UNSW), researchers have reframed the qubit question in order to make a different paradigm. On a relatively traditional silicon chip, pairs of quantum dots, which are artificial atoms that take the form of microscopic crystals, are arranged and combined with nano-scale magnets to help electrons zoom back and forth.

A second group developed a very similar idea at the same time, in a kind of convergent evolution of quantum computing research. The first and second papers, published simultaneously in Nature, both represent results on an underlying silicon technology UNSW says it developed in 2014.

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Using an almost consumer-ready silicon chip means the qubits can be manufactured through established factory channels. While the temperature is the big breakthrough here, the production-friendly tech is also a huge advantage.

Cooling a traditional quantum computer to near absolute zero is already costly, but thats just the beginning. Every qubit pair added to the system increases the total heat generated, and added heat leads to errors, lead researcher Andrew Dzurak said in a statement. Thats primarily why current designs need to be kept so close to absolute zero.

Its also why quantum computers are still so tiny. The cheapest desktop PC we could find on a leading consumer electronics site has an Intel Celeron processor (yes, really!), and this 22-year-old CPU technology could hold several entire quantum computers in just a single container of bits passing through in a fraction of a second. For quantum computers to really both surpass traditional CPUs and reach their promised potential, they need to get huge compared to what researchers are putting together today.

From UNSW's statement:

Turning a handful of bits into millions is dauntingbut its much less so at 1.5 Kelvin than it is at absolute zero. And during the next 10 years, many more barriers are likely to come down.

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Hot Qubits Could Deliver a Quantum Computing Breakthrough - Popular Mechanics

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April 19th, 2020 at 2:53 pm

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