Page 11«..10111213..2030..»

Archive for the ‘Buddhist Concepts’ Category

WIWYK: Different faiths have more in common than not – The Alestle

Posted: October 24, 2019 at 5:46 am


without comments

While 2019s Celebration of World Faiths focused on the importance of taking care of the Earth in various different religions, many speakers conveyed another valuable lesson: the importance of getting in touch with ones spiritual side, regardless of religious affiliation.

The event featured the Assisi Declarations on Nature, formed when leaders from Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism gathered to discuss how their faiths could help protect and save an ailing Earth.

Not everyone has to identify with the same religion:

Because she does not believe in the superiority in any one religion or faith, first-year graduate art therapy counseling student Daisy Yen said she finds it important to partake in events such as the Celebration of World Faiths.

Yen read the Buddhist Declaration in accordance with her personal beliefs at the event Saturday night. However, Yen said she did not do this in the hopes of converting anybody to Buddhism.

I personally dont feel like any religion is superior, or better, than any others, but I think its important that you have a belief its kind of the anchor for your soul, Yen said. So, I dont mean to promote Buddhism, it depends on what you feel you have a connection to. Thats why I came to this ceremony its not only for Buddhism, its not only for Christians, its for every religion, and I have respect for all of them.

On a personal level, Yen said she identifies with the Zen school of Buddhism, which heavily relies on meditation.

For meditation you basically try to have a clear mind, Yen said. One of the sayings is everyone is like a mirror. When the mirror is clean, its supposed to be able to reflect everything clearly. You can make a good decision if you have a very clear mind. However, when theres dust on the mirror, then its hard for you to see things clearly and you may not be able to make good decisions. So its very important that you polish, you clean, your mirror, which stands for your mind.

Yen said being mindful of both ones thoughts and actions is the core of her faith, and this stems from the belief in reincarnation.

For Buddhism, we believe that you have a past life. You have a past life and you have your future life, so whatever you are doing today, whatever happens to you today is a result from your past life, and all the good or bad things youre doing will contribute to your next life, Yen said. So, youre encouraged to be very aware of what youre doing right now. I think its very good to be mindful, and I think mindfulness would be the core.

No one faith is better than others:

Similar to the sentiments of Yen, Yolande Scholler said she also feels no one faith is more important than others.

I believe that were all spiritual beings, and I think on that level of being a spiritual being, theres no such thing as distinctions between different religions, so its all boiling down to the same essence basically, in my opinion, Scholler said.

This very belief inspired Scholler, a second-year social work graduate student from the Netherlands, to start Mantra, a meditation-focused group for those of all different faith backgrounds, even though she individually practices Hinduism.

Its a way to deepen your spirituality, Scholler said. So, you can follow a specific path and you dont have to change it, you can just stick to that, or you can have no path at all it would still be beneficial.

Mantra is currently studying the Bhagavad Gita, the Hindu text from which Scholler read at the Celebration of World Faiths event.

Red Cedar Circlewelcomes all:

At the beginning of the event, the Red Cedar Circle performed Grandmother Song, a tribute to Grandmother Earth, and Tall Cedar Tree, a prayer for the plants. According to the program, these praises originate from the Pacific Northwest Coast Salish Lummi Tribe.

The Red Cedar Circle meets at the Center for Spirituality and Sustainability at noon on the first Saturday of every even month. Member Kathy Matthews said the SiSiWis tradition-based group welcomes anybody to attend their gatherings.

We welcome one and all, Matthews said. We welcome all faiths. As long as you are of a peaceful mind, then you are more than welcome to join us and share your own stories and beliefs. We are open.

According to Matthews, SiSiWis means sacred breath, and the tradition originated as a means to bring different groups together.

Red Cedar Circle comes from the SiSiWis medicine tradition of the Pacific Northwest, Matthews said. That tradition comes from some of the core [families] in that area from way back. It was actually a tradition that came into being as a way to bring all those tribes in that area together.

Matthews said because of this, peace is at the very core of the tradition.

Thats how the tradition was put together, to bring peace to all those peoples up there, and so I believe that is the one base purpose for it being brought out into the world: peace, respect, love, Matthews said.

For more information on events at The Center for Spirituality and Sustainability, visit their calendar of events on their website.

Go here to read the rest:
WIWYK: Different faiths have more in common than not - The Alestle

Written by admin

October 24th, 2019 at 5:46 am

Posted in Buddhist Concepts

Why a Moment of Compassion Can Change Everything in Business (and Life!) – Forbes

Posted: at 5:45 am


without comments

Compassion. Its an action of little effort with impacts that reverberate far beyond that singular moment.

From brightening up a strangers day to clinching a dream business deal thanks to an authentic connection, empathy often creates overwhelmingly positive ripples. Yet it often feels increasingly distant in our modern world.

So, why dont we give compassion the credit and attention it deserves?

Thats what Thupten Jinpa, a Cambridge University alumni, author of A Fearless Heart, longtime translator to the Dalai Lama, and former Tibetan monk wondered.

Thupten Jinpa

With a lifetime immersed in Buddhist philosophies, Jinpa inherently knew there were more perks to compassion than morality alone. But also as a scholar, he wanted to prove it through science.

Jinpa worked alongside Stanford University to design an 8-week course calledCompassion Cultivation Training (CCT).Now offered worldwide, CCT teaches students practical, evidence-based methods of integrating empathy and compassion into their everyday lives. So far, theyve guided everyone from school teachers to CEOs to Silicon Valley police chiefs on instilling conscious empathy.

He also established a nonprofit called the Compassion Institute. Here, Jinpa and his colleagues study the physical and psychological benefits behind mindful, compassionate living.

The more we can live consciously, Jinpa says, the happier we are.

Building a Life of Compassion

Before emerging as a leader in compassionate studies, Thupten Jinpa was a young Tibetan refugee growing up in India. And, it was actually as a child that he first met the Dalai Lama.

The legendary spiritual luminary visited Jinpas boarding school, which was run by Tibetan Buddhist monks. During this visit, the then six-year-old Jinpa was chosen to hold the Dalai Lamas hand and walk alongside him during his stay. Though he knew this man was an important figure, Jinpa didnt fully understand just how so.

I just knew he was my boss boss, Jinpa laughs.

Still, its hard not to think that this early bond somehow guided his future pathespecially since he soon adamantly wanted to become a monk himself.

Aside from his interaction with the Dalai Lama, Jinpa was also enthralled with the monks he regularly saw around him. As an incredibly bright, yet academically bored, student, Jinpa loved the intellectual debates that were commonplace within the monastic order.

There was also an undeniable aura that drew the boy in. They all looked radiant, he says. There was a level of serenity that you don't see in ordinary peoples faces.

So, despite his own fatherwho was a monk himselfbeing against his son joining a monastery, Jinpas strong will won out. At just eleven, he became a Tibetan Buddhist monka role hed remain in for the next eleven years. Those years were probably the best years of my life, Jinpa recalls. It was just amazing.

For the first time I was able to plunge into what inspired me. It was intellectually stimulating. My colleagues were very impressive. The combination of practice, intellectual scholarship, self-study, retreats, and debate...It was just perfect.

It was also during this time that Jinpa reconnected with the Dalai Lama who was seeking a one-off substitute for his regular English translator. With a reputation for his solid grasp of the language, Jinpa was given the opportunity. When people were taken aback by his talent, he was given the role full-time.

Since then, 1985 to be exact, Jinpa has worked closely with the Dalai Lama as they travel the globe to spread his message of peace, kindness and compassionthree things at the core of Tibetan Buddhism.

In the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, there's a whole mythology of compassion, Jinpa says. If people talk about the attributes of individuals, compassion is seen as the best.

He also began realizing how radical the Dalai Lamas teachings were. Though no doubt rooted in Buddhist traditions, he ingeniously adapts his wisdom so its consumable within the secular, mainstream world.

He genuinely believes that theres something in the mental training techniques that the Buddhist traditions have developed, and that they can be adapted, says Jinpa. Basically, if it touches upon the fundamental human experiencehuman lifethen it should be translatable.

After years of inspiration by the Dalai Lama, Jinpa began feeling called towards a purpose beyond life as a monk. Two years of contemplation later, he decided to leave the monastic life behind in pursuit of higher educationand an opportunity to teach the value of compassion to a greater audience.

Though the change didnt necessarily mean hed have to leave his role as translator, Jinpa was still nervous to let his boss know. But as youd likely expect, the Dalai Lama showed nothing but grace.

He responded, Jinpa recalls, I would be lying if I said that I'm not saddened by your decision, and for the monastic community to lose someone of your caliber. But, I've known you for a long time and I know you did not make this decision lightly.

So, with the Dalai Lamas blessingand a scholarship to Cambridge University to study philosophy and religious studiesJinpa began a path as an advocate for a more practical, universal, and academic understanding of compassion.

The Science of Compassion

If compassion is so integral to humanity, why does it seem to be lacking within modern society?

As part of his studies at Cambridge, work with the Compassion Institute, and beyond, Jinpas made it his mission to explore and promote the fascinating intersection of psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, and kindness.

Alongside a team of scientists, psychologists, and even the Dalai Lama himself, Jinpa and his team have been analyzing the merits of mindful compassion for yearsand what theyve learned has been illuminating.

The beauty of learning to extend empathy beyond the normal circle is that even though you may have difficulties with another person, says Jinpa, your handling of that relationship never lets you forget the humanity of the other person.

That gives you tremendous stability and strength.

In life, we often dont have a choice in what happens. However, we do have a choice in how we respond. This is why the teachings of mindfulness and compassion are so powerful, he says. Mindfulness gives us the ability to take a step back and recognize our choices.

Though recognizing the humanity within everyone positively affects us and others within nearly every aspect of life, just imagine the benefits within the workplace alone.

Whether were the intern, the CEO, or the client, we all have flaws, strengths, histories, and motivations. By both acknowledging each others humanity, we can often reach an authentic, effective solution faster than ever.

Jinpas especially seeing workplace benefits within the healthcare industryan industry fraught with stress and burnoutand often lacking in compassion when people need it most.

Not only do physicians, nurses and other medical professionals deserve empathy for their too-often unappreciated laborso do the patients who are treated everyday. In fact, studies are showing that compassion makes patients feel better both emotionally and physically.

Jinpa points to various studies showing that, on average, it took physicians only forty seconds of compassion to make a marked difference on a patients overall well-being and decrease physician burnout.

By taking the short amount of time to build even a short, but genuine, relationship, both parties feel better about whatever challenges may lie ahead. At that moment, theres no doctor and patient. Instead, its just two humans working towards a mutual goalhealth.

Forty seconds can make all the difference, says Jinpa.

Were All Just Human

If compassion is such an important quality, why do humans ignore kindness?

Jinpa learned that so much of our modern culture has been molded by whats considered Darwinian evolutionary thinkingor survival of the fittest. The pursuit of self-interest is seen as the ultimate explanation of human behavior, he says.

Kindness too often gets in the way of that. With the complexities of todays concept of success, compassion often only kicks in during critical, painful or emotional moments. After all, if we dont receive compassion from others during a life-or-death situationwe die.

We too often ignore, overlook or even bury the impulse, says Jinpa. Until recently, compassion was kept within religion or morality. The Dalai Lama took it out, naturalized it, and made it part of the human experience. Now, Jinpas encouraging us all to do the same.

So, how can we all start integrating compassion into our own lives?

First off, Jinpa recommends that we think of integrating compassion into our life as a shift in perspective more than anything. Its not altering how you do things. Instead, its just viewing it all through a compassionate lens.

Its about becoming more aware about when your emotions are kicking in and being able to regulate them, he says.

He also suggests practicing awareness of your actions.

Awareness sets a certain standard for when youre confronted with a situation. Where you might be tempted to do something that is harmful, youre instead able to bring in your mindfulness training and say, Well, this is unbecoming of me. This is against my values.

That's one reason why regular contemplative practice is so powerful. It gives us the ability to bring mindfulness and awareness when it's needed.

Essentially, the more practice you have at mindfully stopping your mental impulses through methods and tools like regular meditation, the easier itll be when it matters most.

Then, when a moment emerges where youd once act impulsively without thought, youll instead stop, thinkand act with kindness.

Want to hear my entire conversation with Thupten Jinpa? You'll learn more about his life as a Tibetan Monk, the science and psychology behind compassion and kindness, how hes using compassion training to treat PTSD, what his relationship with the Dalai Lama was like, and so much more.

Listen to the entire conversation on my donothing podcast now and visit http://www.donothingbook.com for more information. Also, connect with me on Twitter and LinkedIn and keep up with my company imageOne here.

Read the rest here:
Why a Moment of Compassion Can Change Everything in Business (and Life!) - Forbes

Written by admin

October 24th, 2019 at 5:45 am

Posted in Buddhist Concepts

A Hidden Trove of Japanese Buddhist Art Revealed in New Jersey – Tricycle

Posted: October 23, 2019 at 2:43 pm


without comments

The reservoirs of an important art museum are deep, locked, and mostly invisible. The Newark Museum, occupying an urban block in New Jersey next to Rutgers University, houses a widely respected Tibetan Buddhist art collection, which His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama has toured five times. Yet few people may be aware that the museum owns an equally impressive Japanese Buddhist art collection because most of it has never been on display.

In a new exhibition, Beyond Zen: Japanese Buddhism Revealed, on view through January 5, 2020, the museum has brought out what it calls baroque Buddhism: paintings, objects of pilgrimage, shrine ornaments, and gloriously gowned bodhisattvas and household-shrine buddhas. They abide in golden palaces, gem-studded gardens, under silken canopies. Aesthetics are ornate and materials are luxurious: gold, silver, lacquer, silk, and porcelain.

The exhibition provides a rare chance to peer deeper into the Newark Museums rich collections and offers insights into the evolution of Buddhism in Japan, especially in the Edo period (16031868). Much of the museums Japanese Buddhist art was acquired in 1909 from a Western collector who traveled through the countryside, buying what he liked and creating a casual but illuminating cross-section of Buddhism in pre-modern Japan. These sorts of objects are not often on view in art museums, not because they lack beauty but because curators do not consider them to be antique enough. The works speak to Japans reverence for Buddhism and the religions familiar presence within the daily lives of ordinary people. The arts baroque qualities filled a demand.

At the entrance of the exhibition, a scowling wooden temple guardian, Zocho-ten, the Guardian of the South, offers a glimpse into a more distant era. The sculpture is said to be from the Heian period (7941185) and is typical of the wrathful defenders early Japanese Buddhists called on to help defeat the enemies of enlightenment. Its unusual in this exhibition because of both its great age and its having been purchased by the museum in 1965.

Guest curator Midori Oka, associate director of the Mary Griggs Burke Center for Japanese Art in the Department of Art History and Archaeology at Columbia University, selected around 50 objects for the show, ranging from sculpture and paintings to tiny votive pieces and netsuke [miniature sculptures worn with traditional Japanese dress]. Overall, she chose for dramatic emotion, vibrant imagery, and a wide view of Buddhisms appeal. Golden clouds hand-painted on the gallery walls lift ones spirits and recall the gilded aesthetic that created the Golden Pavilion in Kyoto, suggesting a continuity between the Muromachi (13361573) and Edo periods. An elegant, wooden museum-built frame divides the gallery into two rooms. The dramatic entry houses four silk-scroll paintings of different manifestations of Kannon, the bodhisattva of compassion, all four not seen together till now. These and other objects in the exhibition are described below:

Kannon, Bodhisattva of Compassion: Four hanging scrolls, painted in teal, coral, black and gold on silk in the Meiji period (18681912), depict four of Kannons many manifestations: Fish Basket Kannon, Merciful Mother, Willow Branch Kannon, and the bodhisattva unadorned by other identities. Kannons robes are elegant, transparent and gauzy, draped and ornamented, and gloriously opulent, as befits a well-heeled bodhisattva wishing to convince humans of the elevating supremacy of compassion.

Bodhidharma (Daruma), Zen Patriarch: Zen practitioners will be familiar with conventional black-ink drawings of a starkly sober Bodhidharma staring wide-eyedhis eyelids legendarily cut off so that he can meditate without closing his eyesin a vaporous white space. This wooden Bodhidharma, however, wears a flowing red-lacquer robe that flips up in the wind blowing across his forehead and lifts off his feet. The flapping robe is a traditional imagining of the tale of Bodhidharmas miraculous crossing of the Yangtze River on a reed. He is on his way to spend nine years meditating in a cave. Made in the Taisho period (19121926), the statue feels modern and cinematic, and Bodhidharma looks like an action figure whipping through time and space.

Jizo: In the Edo, an artist envisioned a brilliance for the bodhisattva Jizo (Skt., Ksitigarbha), who rescues children and beings lost in hell. Sculptures of Jizo can be inelegant and lumpy, a squat figure formed from clay, or refined and elegant, as this one is. Here, the artist has given the bodhisattva the golden robes and aureole of a standing buddha. The face, with its high forehead, has the deepened gaze and unshakable serenity of ultimate wisdom. We recognize that Jizo has the power to reach even into the worst suffering.

Scenes of Hell: Dramatic visions of hell have always been appealing to artists. From the Edo period, this handscrollcreated with ink and vibrant color on paperitemizes both the garments that new arrivals will wear (to determine the weight of their sins, the curator writes) and the dark destinations that await them. Demons and writhing snakes skewer we humans, roast us in red flames, and boil us in grinning pots, having great fun at our expense.

Bodhisattva Seishi: In Pure Land Buddhism, the power of wisdom (Seishi) merges with the saving grace of Kannon and the inexpressible magnificence of Amida, Buddha of Boundless Light, to manifest enlightenment. Yet this lovingly carved wooden bodhisattva from the Kamakura period (11851392) is more personable and humble than we might expect from one with such a heavy duty. Traditionally, Seishi and Kannon are attendants of Amida. This statue is probably from an altar set that showed Amida at the center and Seishi and Kannon on either side. Seishi bends in gassho, hands together, a gesture of oneness. Viewed from the front, the bodhisattva appears to be magically beseeching us. Are we to cast aside our petty concerns and join him on the path?

Amida Buddha: In this Edo-period scroll, a dying soul (off-camera, so to speak) is welcomed into the Western Paradise (Jodo) where gold-robed Amida Buddha sits on a lotus throne amid stupendous scenery. Kannon leads an entourage to welcome the newcomer. Jizo, Seishi, and 23 other celestial beings have joined the party. Singing and playing heavenly instruments, they float on pearly clouds in the land of enlightened peace and beauty. Just in case you thought you might prefer hell.

The monks path: In four ink-and-color Edo-period scrolls, each with 24 scenes, the monk Tokuhon (17581818) is shown in his severe self-mortification and tireless missionary work (the exhibition text says) as he traverses the path of good deeds and miracles. He has many adventures, he meets with diverse beings and humans, and he assembles a whole novels worth of stories. Hes an ascetic wanderer whose life is nonetheless rich and lustrous. Monks and nuns used these etoki paintingsbased on handscrollsas a kind of slide show for spiritual and moral instruction.

The rest is here:
A Hidden Trove of Japanese Buddhist Art Revealed in New Jersey - Tricycle

Written by admin

October 23rd, 2019 at 2:43 pm

Posted in Buddhist Concepts

I Tried the Buddhist Monk DietAnd It Worked – Tricycle

Posted: at 2:43 pm


without comments

The New York Times recently reported that those who eat their biggest meal in the early hours have better success losing weight. Buried in the article was a comment which would catch the attention of anyone who has had close contact with Theravadin monastics, or, like me, has been one:

The lowest B.M.I.s were recorded in the fraction of peopleabout 8 percent of the total samplewho finished lunch by early afternoon and did not eat again until the next morning, fasting for 18 to 19 hours.

This is a similar eating practice followed by Theravadin monasticsbhikkhus and bhikkhuniswho follow the dietary rules of the Vinaya, the monastic code believed to have been written by the Buddha himself. According to the Vinaya, monastics can eat food only between dawn and noon.

Although this diet was intended to meet the specific needs of the Buddhist community in 5th-century India, some lay people have chosen to take on a version of the practice. Theres even a book advocating the Buddhas diet.

The original logic of the monastic eating practice aimed to avoid causing aggravation to both monastics and laypeople, as explained in the Latukikopama Sutta (MN 66). The diet is neither intended as a health regimen, nor explicitly, as some have claimed, as an expression of a middle way between indulgence and asceticism. While its true that Buddhist monastic life was generally designed to be such a middle way, originally the Buddha allowed his monastics to go on alms round whenever they pleased. The Latukikopama Sutta explains that the Buddha forbade monastics from going on alms rounds after noon to avoid dangers that they might meet later in the daystumbling into natural dangers in the dark, being propositioned for a tryst in the twilight hours, random hooligansand to prevent inconveniencing or frightening lay people.

Considering that weight loss is only a significant issue in societies of satiety, the following of the bhikkhu diet as a health regimen is almost certainly an innovation of modern Western Buddhism. Some Theravadin lay people do follow the bhikkhu diet for a day every quarter moon as part of uposatha practice, where some monastic rules are followed for the sake of cleansing the defilements of the mind and making good karma, but not to slim their waistlines.

Since Im an ex-monastic, you might think that I am against the use of the bhikkhu diet as a mere dieting toolbut youd be wrong. I have used it that way myself from time to time, and recently, several weeks before I read the Times article, I had decided to take it on indefinitely.

The reason was simple: approaching 41 years of age, I found myself overweight and feeling the stressful, impermanent, and uncontrollable nature of my body. I needed to do something.

When I was a monk, the dietary rule turned out to be a profound practice for me. Learning how to tolerate hunger for hours a day became training for tolerating difficult emotions and physical pain. Restricting eating to the morning acts on your desire like focusing a camera lens: the way that the mind relates to the craving for pleasure and safety becomes clearer and easier to witness.

To use a metaphor of Ajahn Chah, the great Thai Forest teacher, the eating rule is like a Thai lizard hunter. He finds the mound where the lizard lives and closes off all the holes but one, then he waits, watching that one hole. Sooner or later the lizard comes out where he can catch it. In the same way, when you stop foraging for food whenever you want and limit yourself to the morning only, you can see your minds behavior around food more clearly.

Related: Dogen Said Not to Waste a Single Grain of Rice. Heres How.

As a layperson, following the bhikkhu diet is of course much more difficult. As a monk, I did not have to cook dinner for others while I myself was not eating or resist the urge to wake up my brain with a meal when I had to stay up late at night working. It was initially difficult as a layperson to adjust to the need to schedule a reasonable amount of healthy food before the noon cutoff. It was also hard to acclimatize myself to the season of hunger that began sometime in the late afternoon and continued until nighttime. After a week or two, however, the diet was feeling energizing. I was losing weight. There was an ironic, one might even say Epicurean, enjoyment in being able to eat freely in the morning, and also in not having to think about food after noon.

A sense of excitement began to grow about the diet. After feeling a little tired in the first week, I did as the monastics do: I began taking tonics in the late afternoon and evening (sugar, honey, and medicine are allowed according to all the different lineages). I would have tea and honey or a particular scandalous treat that is allowed for monastics courtesy of a loophole: dark chocolate. Due to the ingredients of pure dark chocolate being cocoa (a medicine) and sugar, monks in the Thai Forest tradition munch on the little dark squares at tea time. This might make us on the diet seem like dandies to you, but believe mewhen dark chocolate is the only food stuff you are allowed, its flavor begins to turn ascetic pretty quickly.

That adjustment made, I began to settle into the diet comfortably, at least for the most part. I slipped occasionally due to a birthday party dinner or needing to work late at night. I decided to accept that there might be a cheat day once a week, a practice actually recommended in The Buddhas Diet as good for your metabolism.

I also began to feel the mood that comes from settling into any difficult discipline, a mixture of increased self-confidence, self-respect, and a decrease in the kind of anxiety that results from not feeling able to rely on oneself. Other benefits included increased mental clarity and lightness in the latter half of the day, and better sleep at night.

Clark Strand, another ex-monk who tried the bhikkhu diet and wrote about it in Tricycle, fell off the wagon after a few months and gave it up. The friend whose bhikkhu practice inspired Strand to stop eating after noon also happens to be my former abbot, Thanissaro Bhikkhu. After Strand began eating after noon again, Ajahn Thanissaro reportedly told Strand, Its supposed to be part of a whole lifestyle. You take the bhikkhu out of the bhikkhu diet and all youve got is this guy who wont eat anything after twelve noon because it keeps his weight down. Hard to have much commitment to that!

Time will tell how I fare, but Im inclined to think that Ajahn Thanissaro was right. Neither the Times nor even a slim waistline is enough inspiration to keep on the bhikkhu diet. So although one might take up the bhikkhu diet out of a desire for health, longevity in its embrace will require seeing its personal spiritual benefits (and I think its clear that it would not be beneficial for everyone). It will also require having a little of the bhikkhu or bhikkhuni in you. But then isnt that supposed to be true of every follower of the Buddha?

[This article was first published in 2017.]

Go here to read the rest:
I Tried the Buddhist Monk DietAnd It Worked - Tricycle

Written by admin

October 23rd, 2019 at 2:43 pm

Posted in Buddhist Concepts

Encinitas resident brings eastern religion statues to the west coast – Encinitas Advocate

Posted: at 2:43 pm


without comments

From running a small operation out of his parents basement in Connecticut 20 years ago, Kyle Tortora has an inventory of about 1,200 Buddhist and Hindu statues stored in an Oceanside warehouse, sold through his website and shipped all over the world.

Tortora, an Encinitas resident, launched his business after originally setting out to be a podiatrist, and then to escape the corporate world in New York City.

This interview has been edited for clarity and conciseness.

Q: What first sparked your interest in the Buddhist and Hindu religions?

A: I read Siddhartha by Hermann Hesse like four times when I was growing up and just loved the book, I gravitated toward the book. I kind of thought about, not the supernatural aspects of Buddhism, but just the mystical aspect kind of drew me into it. I was studying pre-med to be a podiatrist, I just thought Id naturally be a podiatrist. I thought that was my path. I took organic chemistry at the University of Richmond and said, This is totally not for me. I switched my major to religion, which is what I was truly interested in. That summer I was like, I dont want to just go home and be a lifeguard for the summer, or do whatever job everyone else is doing. I researched temples to meditate in in Thailand. So, 18-year-old kid, I had a thousand bucks in my pocket and I went to meditate in Chiang Mai for two weeks in a temple up there. After that was done, I spent a month and a half and traveled around Thailand and it was just absolutely amazing.

Q: How did it turn into a business selling statues?

A: I went to Manhattan and sold websites for two years, and after that I was like, This sucks, I dont like wearing a suit and tie every day, schlepping around Manhattan, so I sold everything and went to India for the first time. Then I was old enough to say, Hey I need to figure out how Im going to make traveling work. I saw a nataraja statue and it just hit me. Im going to find out where these are made, Im going to build a website and Im going to come back here, buy a container, ship it back and sell them. And thats what I did. Twenty years later, here I am.

Q: Which countries do the statues in your inventory come from and who makes them?

A: More or less all over southeast Asia and south Asia. India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia and China. I dont go to all of them on every trip, but I definitely hit all those countries in a four, five-year span. I work directly with artisans. I find the good artisans that I can work with who are trustworthy, who are good people. Usually it starts off, they have a stock of stuff and I buy those, but then I just kind of commission orders from them and then they make the statues for me. There are a couple artists in particular that went from basically having a workshop with two people and now its 30 people, and Im supporting, him, his family and all those people as well.

Q: Do your customers buy these statues as part of their religious practices, or are they more for decoration?

A: Both. I have Hindus buying them who are doing pooja, which is kind of a ceremony, so theyre worshipping these gods daily. I sell to Buddhist temples and Hindu temples. And then I sell to people who just want more outdoor statues. Theres a bunch of very spiritual people who arent fully practicing but they feel drawn to these statues. It kind of runs the gamut.

Q: Is there a strong market for these statues locally, given the growing interest in eastern religion and philosophy in Southern California?

A: Absolutely. I live in Encinitas, so thats like the epicenter of yoga, thats yogas birthplace in America. Im very happy that Im in the corridor between L.A. and San Diego because I have a lot of people coming through. This is definitely better than New York City.

For more information, visit lotussculpture.com

Visit link:
Encinitas resident brings eastern religion statues to the west coast - Encinitas Advocate

Written by admin

October 23rd, 2019 at 2:43 pm

Posted in Buddhist Concepts

Introduction to Basic Beliefs and … – Learn Religions

Posted: September 9, 2019 at 2:46 pm


without comments

Buddhism is a religion based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, who was born in the fifth century B.C. in what is now Nepal and northern India. He came to be called "the Buddha," which means "awakened one," after he experienced a profound realization of the nature of life, death, and existence. In English, the Buddha was said to be enlightened, although in Sanskrit it is "bodhi," or "awakened."

For the rest of his life, the Buddha traveled and taught. However, he didn't teach people what he had realized when he became enlightened. Instead, he taught people how to realize enlightenment for themselves. He taught that awakening comes through your own direct experience, not through beliefs and dogmas.

At the time of his death, Buddhism was a relatively minor sect with little impact in India. But by the third century B.C., the emperor of India made Buddhism the state religion of the country.

Buddhism then spread throughout Asia to become one of the dominant religions of the continent. Estimates of the number of Buddhists in the world today vary widely, in part because many Asians observe more than one religion and in part because it is hard to know how many people are practicing Buddhism in Communist nations like China. The most common estimate is 350 million, which makes Buddhism the fourth largest of the world's religions.

Buddhism is so different from other religions that some people question whether it is a religion at all. For example, the central focus of most religions is one or many. But Buddhism is non-theistic. The Buddha taught that believing in gods was not useful for those seeking to realize enlightenment.

Most religions are defined by their beliefs. But in Buddhism, merely believing in doctrines is beside the point. The Buddha said that doctrines should not be accepted just because they are in scripture or taught by priests.

Instead of teaching doctrines to be memorized and believed, the Buddha taught how to realize truth for yourself. The focus of Buddhism is on practice rather than belief. The major outline of Buddhist practice is the Eightfold Path.

In spite of its emphasis on free inquiry, Buddhism might best be understood as a discipline and an exacting discipline at that. And although Buddhist teachings should not be accepted on blind faith, understanding what the Buddha taught is an important part of that discipline.

By themselves, the truths don't seem like much. But beneath the truths are countless layers of teachings on the nature of existence, the self, life, and death, not to mention suffering. The point is not to just "believe in" the teachings, but to explore them, understand them, and test them against your own experience. It is the process of exploring, understanding, testing, and realizing that defines Buddhism.

About 2,000 years ago Buddhism divided into two major schools: Theravada and Mahayana. For centuries, Theravada has been the dominant form of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, (Myanmar) and Laos. Mahayana is dominant in China, Japan, Taiwan, Tibet, Nepal, Mongolia, Korea, and Vietnam. In recent years, Mahayana also has gained many followers in India. Mahayana is further divided into many sub-schools, such as Pure Land andTheravada Buddhism.

Vajrayana Buddhism, which is chiefly associated with Tibetan Buddhism, is sometimes described as a third major school. However, all schools of Vajrayana are also part of Mahayana.

The two schools differ primarily in their understanding of a doctrine called "anatman" or "anatta." According to this doctrine, there is no "self" in the sense of a permanent, integral, autonomous being within an individual existence. Anatman is a difficult teaching to understand, but understanding it is essential to making sense of Buddhism.

Basically, Theravada considers anatman to mean that an individual's ego or personality is a delusion. Once freed of this delusion, the individual can enjoy the bliss of Nirvana. Mahayana pushes anatman further. In Mahayana, all phenomena are void of intrinsic identity and take identity only in relation to other phenomena. There is neither reality nor unreality, only relativity. The Mahayana teaching is called "shunyata" or "emptiness."

It is said that wisdom and compassion are the two eyes of Buddhism. Wisdom, particularly in Mahayana Buddhism, refers to the realization of anatman or shunyata. There are two words translated as "compassion": "metta and "karuna." Metta is a benevolence toward all beings, without discrimination, that is free of selfish attachment. Karuna refers to active sympathy and gentle affection, a willingness to bear the pain of others, and possibly pity. Those who have perfected these virtues will respond to all circumstances correctly, according to Buddhist doctrine.

There are two things most people think they know about Buddhismthat Buddhists believe in reincarnation and that all Buddhists are vegetarian. These two statements are not true, however. Buddhist teachingson rebirth are considerably different from what most people call "reincarnation." And although vegetarianism is encouraged, in many sects it is considered a personal choice, not a requirement.

More:
Introduction to Basic Beliefs and ... - Learn Religions

Written by admin

September 9th, 2019 at 2:46 pm

Posted in Buddhist Concepts

Buddhism: Basic Beliefs | URI

Posted: April 1, 2019 at 5:47 am


without comments

About 2500 years ago, a prince named Siddhartha Gautama began to question his sheltered, luxurious life in the palace. He left the palace and saw four sights: a sick man, an old man, a dead man and a monk. These sights are said to have shown him that even a prince cannot escape illness, suffering and death. The sight of the monk told Siddhartha to leave his life as a prince and become a wandering holy man, seeking the answers to questions like "Why must people suffer?" "What is the cause of suffering?" Siddartha spent many years doing many religious practices such as praying, meditating, and fasting until he finally understood the basic truths of life. This realization occurred after sitting under a Poplar-figtree in Bodh Gaya, India for many days, in deep meditation. He gained enlightenment, or nirvana, and was given the title of Buddha, which means Enlightened One.

Buddha discovered Three Universal Truths and Four Noble Truths, which he then taught to the people for the next 45 years.

Buddha then taught people not to worship him as a god. He said they should take responsibility for their own lives and actions. He taught that the Middle Way was the way to nirvana. The Middle Way meant not leading a life of luxury and indulgence but also not one of too much fasting and hardship. There are eight guides for following the Middle path.

Meditation is an essential practice to most Buddhists. Buddhists look within themselves for the truth and understanding of Buddha's teachings. They seek enlightenment, or nirvana, this way. Nirvana is freedom from needless suffering and being fully alive and present in one's life. It is not a state that can really be described in words -- it goes beyond words.

Meditation means focusing the mind to achieve an inner stillness that leads to a state of enlightenment. Meditation takes many forms:

After Buddha died, his teachings were gradually written down from what people remembered. The ripitaka, or The Three Baskets, is a collection of Buddha's sayings, his thoughts about them, and rules for Buddhists monks. The Ripitaka was first written on palm leaves which were collected together in baskets.

There are over 500 million Buddhists today. After Buddha's death, some of his followers had some differences of opinion which eventually led to their breaking away and forming separate kinds of Buddhism. There are two main types, Theravada, which spread to Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos, and Mahayana which spread to Nepal, Vietnam, China, Korea and Japan. Mahayana took on aspects of the cultures where it was practiced and became three distinct branches: Vajrayana Buddhism or Tibetan Buddhism, Pure Land Buddhism and Zen Buddhism.

Even though each form of Buddhism took on its own identity, all Buddhists follow a set of guidelines for daily life called the Five Precepts. These are:

Read the rest here:
Buddhism: Basic Beliefs | URI

Written by admin

April 1st, 2019 at 5:47 am

Posted in Buddhist Concepts

Facts About Buddhism You Probably Don’t Know – rd.com

Posted: at 5:47 am


without comments

Buddha wasnt chubby

sidaudhi/Shutterstock

Despite the stature of the laughing statue that you see at your favorite Chinese food takeout place, the first Buddha was known to survive on one grain of rice per day. and ancient texts refer to him as being so skinny that his bones showed. So how did the commonplace depiction of a rotund, laughing Buddha become so associated with this historical figure? When Buddhism spread to China, the image of the Buddha was conflated with a Chinese God, Budai, who is fat, bald, and travels with a large sack, says Jim Wasserman, a retired comparative religion professor and co-owner (with his wife) of Your Third Life. Chinese immigrants were the first to bring the notion of Buddhism to America, so people thought that this version of a fat Buddha was the only one. If one looks at the older, Theravadan branch of Buddhism (common to Thailand or India), one sees the older, slimmer Buddha. Buddha is just one of 10 historical figures youve been picturing all wrong.

Elena Veselova/Shutterstock

Many, if not most Buddhists are vegetarian and believe that animals are nonhuman people who cannot be killed for food. That said, according to the Humane Societys Buddhist Teachings on Animals, there are exceptions to this ideology. In ancient times, eating meat was strictly forbidden by Buddha, except in the case of monks, who traditionally begged for the one meal they ate each day. The monks were allowed to eat meat if it was placed in their bowls, provided that they had no reason to believe that an animal was specifically killed in order to provide them with food. Some modern-day Buddhists interpret this practice so as to believe that they can eat meat from supermarkets and restaurants, for this same reason.

vectorx2263/Shutterstock

Believe it or not, many Buddhists own cars, homes, jewelry, and more. Because so many vocal Buddhists in America are practicing monks, or wealthy people rejecting materialism to go meditate, we assume all Buddhists are like that, says Wasserman. Travel to a Buddhist country, and you will not see people rejecting the material world, but rather, praying to win the lottery or be successful, just like other religions, he adds.

Link:
Facts About Buddhism You Probably Don't Know - rd.com

Written by admin

April 1st, 2019 at 5:47 am

Posted in Buddhist Concepts

Introduction to Basic Beliefs and Tenets of Buddhism

Posted: March 15, 2019 at 4:45 pm


without comments

Buddhism is a religion based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, who was born in the fifth century B.C. in what is now Nepal and northern India. He came to be called "the Buddha," which means "awakened one," after he experienced a profound realization of the nature of life, death, and existence. In English, the Buddha was said to be enlightened, although in Sanskrit it is "bodhi," or "awakened."

For the rest of his life, the Buddha traveled and taught. However, he didn't teach people what he had realized when he became enlightened. Instead, he taught people how to realize enlightenment for themselves. He taught that awakening comes through your own direct experience, not through beliefs and dogmas.

At the time of his death, Buddhism was a relatively minor sect with little impact in India. But by the third century B.C., the emperor of India made Buddhism the state religion of the country.

Buddhism then spread throughout Asia to become one of the dominant religions of the continent. Estimates of the number of Buddhists in the world today vary widely, in part because many Asians observe more than one religion and in part because it is hard to know how many people are practicing Buddhism in Communist nations like China. The most common estimate is 350 million, which makes Buddhism the fourth largest of the world's religions.

Buddhism is so different from other religions that some people question whether it is a religion at all. For example, the central focus of most religions is one or many. But Buddhism is non-theistic. The Buddha taught that believing in gods was not useful for those seeking to realize enlightenment.

Most religions are defined by their beliefs. But in Buddhism, merely believing in doctrines is beside the point. The Buddha said that doctrines should not be accepted just because they are in scripture or taught by priests.

Instead of teaching doctrines to be memorized and believed, the Buddha taught how to realize truth for yourself. The focus of Buddhism is on practice rather than belief. The major outline of Buddhist practice is the Eightfold Path.

In spite of its emphasis on free inquiry, Buddhism might best be understood as a discipline and an exacting discipline at that. And although Buddhist teachings should not be accepted on blind faith, understanding what the Buddha taught is an important part of that discipline.

By themselves, the truths don't seem like much. But beneath the truths are countless layers of teachings on the nature of existence, the self, life, and death, not to mention suffering. The point is not to just "believe in" the teachings, but to explore them, understand them, and test them against your own experience. It is the process of exploring, understanding, testing, and realizing that defines Buddhism.

About 2,000 years ago Buddhism divided into two major schools: Theravada and Mahayana. For centuries, Theravada has been the dominant form of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, (Myanmar) and Laos. Mahayana is dominant in China, Japan, Taiwan, Tibet, Nepal, Mongolia, Korea, and Vietnam. In recent years, Mahayana also has gained many followers in India. Mahayana is further divided into many sub-schools, such as Pure Land andTheravada Buddhism.

Vajrayana Buddhism, which is chiefly associated with Tibetan Buddhism, is sometimes described as a third major school. However, all schools of Vajrayana are also part of Mahayana.

The two schools differ primarily in their understanding of a doctrine called "anatman" or "anatta." According to this doctrine, there is no "self" in the sense of a permanent, integral, autonomous being within an individual existence. Anatman is a difficult teaching to understand, but understanding it is essential to making sense of Buddhism.

Basically, Theravada considers anatman to mean that an individual's ego or personality is a delusion. Once freed of this delusion, the individual can enjoy the bliss of Nirvana. Mahayana pushes anatman further. In Mahayana, all phenomena are void of intrinsic identity and take identity only in relation to other phenomena. There is neither reality nor unreality, only relativity. The Mahayana teaching is called "shunyata" or "emptiness."

It is said that wisdom and compassion are the two eyes of Buddhism. Wisdom, particularly in Mahayana Buddhism, refers to the realization of anatman or shunyata. There are two words translated as "compassion": "metta and "karuna." Metta is a benevolence toward all beings, without discrimination, that is free of selfish attachment. Karuna refers to active sympathy and gentle affection, a willingness to bear the pain of others, and possibly pity. Those who have perfected these virtues will respond to all circumstances correctly, according to Buddhist doctrine.

There are two things most people think they know about Buddhismthat Buddhists believe in reincarnation and that all Buddhists are vegetarian. These two statements are not true, however. Buddhist teachingson rebirth are considerably different from what most people call "reincarnation." And although vegetarianism is encouraged, in many sects it is considered a personal choice, not a requirement.

More:
Introduction to Basic Beliefs and Tenets of Buddhism

Written by admin

March 15th, 2019 at 4:45 pm

Posted in Buddhist Concepts

Buddhism Facts for Kids

Posted: March 1, 2019 at 7:50 pm


without comments

Buddhism is a religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama. Buddhism teaches people how to end their suffering by cutting out greed, hatred and ignorance. When people do bad things, they will get bad consequences. When people do good things, they will get good consequences. Good and bad things do not cancel out.

This cause-and-effect chain is reflected in the endless cycles of life, death and rebirth. Buddhism believes in reincarnation (rebirth). The ultimate goal of a Buddhist is to reach the state of enlightenment (Nirvana) and liberate oneself from endless reincarnation and suffering. Some see Buddhism as a religion, others see it is a philosophy, and others think it is a way of finding reality. Some think that it is unnecessary to label Buddhism.

Gautama Buddha a man who lived between about 563 BCE and 483 BC was born in Lumbini, Nepal, as a rich prince. He gave up everything to find a way to end suffering. His teachings spread, after his death, through most of Asia, to Central Asia, Tibet, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, and the East Asian countries of China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan and have now spread to the west.

The Buddha's teachings are about suffering and how to overcome it. According to the Buddha, overcoming suffering allows a person to be truly happy. The Buddha taught that if people make good decisions they would be happy and have peace of mind. The Buddha taught that life is imperfect and that we will suffer. He taught that we suffer because of desire, anger and stupidity, and he showed that we could end our suffering by letting go of desires and overcoming anger and stupidity. The complete letting go of these negative influences is called Nirvana, meaning "to extinguish", like putting out the flame of a candle. The end of suffering, when one is fully awake (put an end to one's own ignorance) and has let go of all desire and anger, is also called Enlightenment. In Buddhism Enlightenment and Nirvana mean the same thing.

Buddhism teaches non-harm and moderation or balance, not going too far one way or the other. Buddhists often meditate while sitting in a special or specific way. They often chant and meditate while walking. Buddhists sometimes do these things to understand the human heart and mind. Sometimes they do these things to understand the way the world works. Sometimes they do these things to find peace.

Buddhism does not say if gods exist or not, but one can read many stories about gods in some Buddhist books. Buddhists do not believe that people should look to gods to save them or bring them enlightenment. The gods may have power over world events and they might help people, or they might not. But it's up to each person to get to enlightenment. Many Buddhists honor gods in ritual. Other Buddhists believe the stories about gods are just there to help us learn about parts of ourselves.

Buddha is a word in the very old Nepalese and Indian languages Pli and Sanskrit which means "Enlightened one". The word "Buddha" often means the historical Buddha named Buddha Shakyamuni (Siddhartha Gautama), but "Buddha" does not mean just one man who lived at a certain time. It is used for a type of person, the equivalent of a prophet, and Buddhists believe there have been many - that there were Buddhas a very long time ago and there will be for a long time in the future.

Buddhists do not believe that a Buddha is a god, but that he is a human being who has woken up and can see the true way the world works. They believe this knowledge totally changes the person. Some say this puts them beyond birth, death, and rebirth. Others think this represents the final extinction of desire. This person can help others become enlightened too.

According to Buddhism, there were countless Buddhas before Gautama Buddha and there will be many Buddhas after him. In short, he is not the first, nor will he be the last.

The first Buddha in Buddhavamsa sutta was Tahakara Buddha, The Mahapadana sutta say the first Buddha was Vipassi Buddha, however, counting from the present kalpa (the beginning of our present universe) Buddha Gautama is considered the fourth Buddha. The first is Kakusandho Buddha, second Konakamano Buddha and the third Kassapo Buddha. The last Buddha of this kalpa will be Maitreya Buddha. Then the universe will renew itself and from then begins a new kalpa.

Old stories say that Siddhrtha Gautama was born around the 6th century BC. He was the one who would become the first Buddha in written history. Some Buddhists believe that Siddhrtha Gautama was a perfect person.

He was born a prince and was unsure about if he wanted to become a religious man or a prince. At age 29 he noticed pain and suffering. He then wanted to learn the answer to the problem of human suffering, or pain. He gave up all his money and power, and became a monk without a home. He walked from place to place, trying to learn the answers to life.

At last he found enlightenment while sitting under a big tree called the Bodhi Tree. He was the first person to teach Buddhism to the people, and Buddhists love him for that. A cutting was made from the Bodhi Tree and planted in Sri Lanka. When the original tree died, a cutting from the Sri Lankan tree was planted in the original spot and so today there is a second-generation clone of the first tree in the Indian city of Bodh Gaya.

After Siddhrtha Gautama died, his students taught the Buddha's teaching to more people. After a long time, they wrote down the things that he may have said.

Buddhists often talk about the Three Jewels, which are the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.

The Dharma is the way the Buddha taught to live your life. The Sangha is the group of monks and other people who meet together, like a congregation.

Buddhists say "I take refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha." This means that these three things keep them safe. They give themselves up to the community and teachings inspired by the Buddha.

The Buddha's first and most important teachings are the Four Noble Truths.

The Buddha told people to follow a special way of life called the Noble Eightfold Path if they want to understand the Four Noble Truths. These are:

Buddhists are encouraged to follow five precepts, or rules, that say what not to do.

If a person wants to be a monk or nun, he or she will follow other precepts as well.

"The Great Departure", relic depicting Gautama leaving home, first or second century (Muse Guimet).

Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath, India, where the Buddha gave his first sermon. It was built by Ashoka.

Buddha statue depicting Parinirvana (Mahaparinirvana Temple, Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India).

The Buddha teaching the Four Noble Truths. Sanskrit manuscript. Nalanda, Bihar, India.

Traditional Tibetan Buddhist Thangka depicting the Wheel of Life with its six realms

Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya, India, where Gautama Buddha attained nirvana under the Bodhi Tree (left)

Dna or charitable giving to monks is a virtue in Buddhism, leading to merit accumulation and better rebirths.

Relic depicting footprint of the Buddha with Dharmachakra and triratna, 1st century CE, Gandhra.

Monks performing a ceremony in Hangzhou, China

Statue of the Buddha in meditation position, Haw Phra Kaew, Vientiane, Laos

Statue of Buddha in Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat, Phitsanulok, Thailand

Monks debating at Sera Monastery, Tibet

The Great Statue of Amitbha in Kamakura, Japan

Bhatti (devotion) at a Buddhist temple, Tibet. Chanting during Bhatti Puja (devotional worship) is often a part of the Theravada Buddhist tradition.

Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu reads Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock copy of the Tibetan Kanjur.

The Tripiaka Koreana in South Korea, an edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon carved and preserved in over 81,000 wood printing blocks.

The Buddhist "Carpenter's Cave" at Ellora in Maharashtra, India

Buddha at Xumishan Grottoes, ca. 6th century CE.

A Buddhist triad depicting, left to right, a Kushan, the future buddha Maitreya, Gautama Buddha, the bodhisattva Avalokitevara, and a monk. Secondthird century. Guimet Museum

The spread of Buddhism at the time of emperor Ashoka (260218 BCE).

Coin depicting Indo-Greek king Menander, who, according to Buddhist tradition records in the Milinda Panha, converted to the Buddhist faith and became an arhat in the 2nd century BCE . (British Museum)

Distribution of major Buddhist traditions

The ideas of the 2nd century scholar Nagarjuna helped shape the Mahayana traditions.

7th-century Potala Palace in Lhasa valley symbolizes Tibetan Buddhism and is a UNESCO world heritage site.

Ginkaku-ji, a Zen temple in Kyoto, Japan

See the original post:
Buddhism Facts for Kids

Written by admin

March 1st, 2019 at 7:50 pm

Posted in Buddhist Concepts


Page 11«..10111213..2030..»